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Bioaugmentation: An Emerging Strategy of Industrial Wastewater Treatment for Reuse and Discharge

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

A promising long-term and sustainable solution to the growing scarcity of water worldwide is to recycle and reuse wastewater. In wastewater treatment plants, the biodegradation of contaminants or pollutants by harnessing microorganisms present in activated sludge is one of the most important strategies to remove organic contaminants from wastewater. However, this approach has limitations because many pollutants are not efficiently eliminated. To counterbalance the limitations, bioaugmentation has been developed and consists of adding specific and efficient pollutant-biodegrading microorganisms into a microbial community in an effort to enhance the ability of this microbial community to biodegrade contaminants. This approach has been tested for wastewater cleaning with encouraging results, but failure has also been reported, especially during scale-up. In this review, work on the bioaugmentation in the context of removal of important pollutants from industrial wastewater is summarized, with an emphasis on recalcitrant compounds, and strategies that can be used to improve the efficiency of bioaugmentation are also discussed. This review also initiates a discussion regarding new research areas, such as nanotechnology and quorum sensing, that should be investigated to improve the efficiency of wastewater bioaugmentation.

No MeSH data available.


Generic flow of industrial wastewater treatment plan (adapted and modified from [4]).
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ijerph-13-00846-f001: Generic flow of industrial wastewater treatment plan (adapted and modified from [4]).

Mentions: The contaminated wastewater needs treatment(s) to remove or lower the concentration of pollutants to acceptable levels prior to its reuse or discharge to the environment. With the increase in the awareness of pollutants’ consequences on human health and the environment, all over the world, legislations on the discharge of pollutants are being tightened. As the result, strategies to improve the efficiency of treatment plants to clean industrial wastewater are being developed. Figure 1 summarizes a generic industrial treatment plant. The first steps involve physico-chemical treatment for the removal of organic or inorganic pollutants, and/or biological treatments (removal of organic pollutants), followed by a secondary treatment. This secondary treatment leads to the generation backwash effluents, sludge and membrane concentrates. Backwash effluents can be discharged or sent to a local sewage treatment plant if the discharge criteria are met. Depending upon the type of contaminations, the products of physico-chemical and biological treatments will be subjected to purification and disinfection prior to reuse [4].


Bioaugmentation: An Emerging Strategy of Industrial Wastewater Treatment for Reuse and Discharge
Generic flow of industrial wastewater treatment plan (adapted and modified from [4]).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5036679&req=5

ijerph-13-00846-f001: Generic flow of industrial wastewater treatment plan (adapted and modified from [4]).
Mentions: The contaminated wastewater needs treatment(s) to remove or lower the concentration of pollutants to acceptable levels prior to its reuse or discharge to the environment. With the increase in the awareness of pollutants’ consequences on human health and the environment, all over the world, legislations on the discharge of pollutants are being tightened. As the result, strategies to improve the efficiency of treatment plants to clean industrial wastewater are being developed. Figure 1 summarizes a generic industrial treatment plant. The first steps involve physico-chemical treatment for the removal of organic or inorganic pollutants, and/or biological treatments (removal of organic pollutants), followed by a secondary treatment. This secondary treatment leads to the generation backwash effluents, sludge and membrane concentrates. Backwash effluents can be discharged or sent to a local sewage treatment plant if the discharge criteria are met. Depending upon the type of contaminations, the products of physico-chemical and biological treatments will be subjected to purification and disinfection prior to reuse [4].

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

A promising long-term and sustainable solution to the growing scarcity of water worldwide is to recycle and reuse wastewater. In wastewater treatment plants, the biodegradation of contaminants or pollutants by harnessing microorganisms present in activated sludge is one of the most important strategies to remove organic contaminants from wastewater. However, this approach has limitations because many pollutants are not efficiently eliminated. To counterbalance the limitations, bioaugmentation has been developed and consists of adding specific and efficient pollutant-biodegrading microorganisms into a microbial community in an effort to enhance the ability of this microbial community to biodegrade contaminants. This approach has been tested for wastewater cleaning with encouraging results, but failure has also been reported, especially during scale-up. In this review, work on the bioaugmentation in the context of removal of important pollutants from industrial wastewater is summarized, with an emphasis on recalcitrant compounds, and strategies that can be used to improve the efficiency of bioaugmentation are also discussed. This review also initiates a discussion regarding new research areas, such as nanotechnology and quorum sensing, that should be investigated to improve the efficiency of wastewater bioaugmentation.

No MeSH data available.