Limits...
Eag1 channels as potential early-stage biomarkers of hepatocellular carcinoma

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major cause of cancer death worldwide. HCC is usually asymptomatic at potential curative stages, and it has very poor prognosis if detected later. Thus, the identification of early biomarkers and novel therapies is essential to improve HCC patient survival. Ion channels have been proposed as potential tumor markers and therapeutic targets for several cancers including HCC. Especially, the ether à-go-go-1 (Eag1) voltage-gated potassium channel has been suggested as an early marker for HCC. Eag1 is overexpressed during HCC development from the cirrhotic and the preneoplastic lesions preceding HCC in a rat model. The channel is also overexpressed in human HCC. Astemizole has gained great interest as a potential anticancer drug because it targets several proteins involved in cancer including Eag1. Actually, in vivo studies have shown that astemizole may have clinical utility for HCC prevention and treatment. Here, we will review first some general aspects of HCC including the current biomarkers and therapies, and then we will focus on Eag1 channels as promising tools in the early diagnosis of HCC.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Eag1 expression in the progression of HCC.Notes: The principal risk factors for the development of HCC induce serious liver damage, causing necrosis and proliferation in the hepatocyte. This phase is known as chronic liver disease and may continue to liver cirrhosis. Cirrhosis is characterized by the presence of fibrosis; during this process, the connective tissue separates the liver into multiple regeneration nodules, that is, the fibrosis surrounds the nodules completely. The hyperplastic nodules evolve to dysplastic ones and ultimately to HCC. The use of astemizole in the cirrhosis stage may prevent the development of HCC and even produce HCC regression. Eag1 channels have been shown to be expressed at early stages of HCC development.32Abbreviations: Eag1, ether à-go-go-1; HCC, hepatocellular carcinoma.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5036561&req=5

f1-btt-10-139: Eag1 expression in the progression of HCC.Notes: The principal risk factors for the development of HCC induce serious liver damage, causing necrosis and proliferation in the hepatocyte. This phase is known as chronic liver disease and may continue to liver cirrhosis. Cirrhosis is characterized by the presence of fibrosis; during this process, the connective tissue separates the liver into multiple regeneration nodules, that is, the fibrosis surrounds the nodules completely. The hyperplastic nodules evolve to dysplastic ones and ultimately to HCC. The use of astemizole in the cirrhosis stage may prevent the development of HCC and even produce HCC regression. Eag1 channels have been shown to be expressed at early stages of HCC development.32Abbreviations: Eag1, ether à-go-go-1; HCC, hepatocellular carcinoma.

Mentions: Hepatocarcinogenesis is a multistep process in which a number of genetic alterations accumulate in the cells. After hepatic injury due to major predisposing risk factors for HCC, necrosis arises followed by hepatocyte proliferation. This continuous process of destructive–regenerative cycles in the hepatocyte promotes chronic liver injury and progressive liver fibrosis resulting in cirrhosis. If the process continues, the next step is the progressive malignant transformation of cirrhotic nodules and premalignant lesions, which will finally lead to HCC9,10 (Figure 1).


Eag1 channels as potential early-stage biomarkers of hepatocellular carcinoma
Eag1 expression in the progression of HCC.Notes: The principal risk factors for the development of HCC induce serious liver damage, causing necrosis and proliferation in the hepatocyte. This phase is known as chronic liver disease and may continue to liver cirrhosis. Cirrhosis is characterized by the presence of fibrosis; during this process, the connective tissue separates the liver into multiple regeneration nodules, that is, the fibrosis surrounds the nodules completely. The hyperplastic nodules evolve to dysplastic ones and ultimately to HCC. The use of astemizole in the cirrhosis stage may prevent the development of HCC and even produce HCC regression. Eag1 channels have been shown to be expressed at early stages of HCC development.32Abbreviations: Eag1, ether à-go-go-1; HCC, hepatocellular carcinoma.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5036561&req=5

f1-btt-10-139: Eag1 expression in the progression of HCC.Notes: The principal risk factors for the development of HCC induce serious liver damage, causing necrosis and proliferation in the hepatocyte. This phase is known as chronic liver disease and may continue to liver cirrhosis. Cirrhosis is characterized by the presence of fibrosis; during this process, the connective tissue separates the liver into multiple regeneration nodules, that is, the fibrosis surrounds the nodules completely. The hyperplastic nodules evolve to dysplastic ones and ultimately to HCC. The use of astemizole in the cirrhosis stage may prevent the development of HCC and even produce HCC regression. Eag1 channels have been shown to be expressed at early stages of HCC development.32Abbreviations: Eag1, ether à-go-go-1; HCC, hepatocellular carcinoma.
Mentions: Hepatocarcinogenesis is a multistep process in which a number of genetic alterations accumulate in the cells. After hepatic injury due to major predisposing risk factors for HCC, necrosis arises followed by hepatocyte proliferation. This continuous process of destructive–regenerative cycles in the hepatocyte promotes chronic liver injury and progressive liver fibrosis resulting in cirrhosis. If the process continues, the next step is the progressive malignant transformation of cirrhotic nodules and premalignant lesions, which will finally lead to HCC9,10 (Figure 1).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major cause of cancer death worldwide. HCC is usually asymptomatic at potential curative stages, and it has very poor prognosis if detected later. Thus, the identification of early biomarkers and novel therapies is essential to improve HCC patient survival. Ion channels have been proposed as potential tumor markers and therapeutic targets for several cancers including HCC. Especially, the ether à-go-go-1 (Eag1) voltage-gated potassium channel has been suggested as an early marker for HCC. Eag1 is overexpressed during HCC development from the cirrhotic and the preneoplastic lesions preceding HCC in a rat model. The channel is also overexpressed in human HCC. Astemizole has gained great interest as a potential anticancer drug because it targets several proteins involved in cancer including Eag1. Actually, in vivo studies have shown that astemizole may have clinical utility for HCC prevention and treatment. Here, we will review first some general aspects of HCC including the current biomarkers and therapies, and then we will focus on Eag1 channels as promising tools in the early diagnosis of HCC.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus