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TiO 2 nanotube platforms for smart drug delivery: a review

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ABSTRACT

Titania nanotube (TNT) arrays are recognized as promising materials for localized drug delivery implants because of their excellent properties and facile preparation process. This review highlights the concept of localized drug delivery systems based on TNTs, considering their outstanding biocompatibility in a series of ex vivo and in vivo studies. Considering the safety of TNT implants in the host body, studies of the biocompatibility present significant importance for the clinical application of TNT implants. Toward smart TNT platforms for sustainable drug delivery, several advanced approaches were presented in this review, including controlled release triggered by temperature, light, radiofrequency magnetism, and ultrasonic stimulation. Moreover, TNT implants used in medical therapy have been demonstrated by various examples including dentistry, orthopedic implants, cardiovascular stents, and so on. Finally, a future perspective of TNTs for clinical applications is provided.

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Schematic representation of a model drug release from TNTs implants for in vitro release studies with the RF trigger.Notes: (A) Noninvasive and on-demand triggered release from drug-eluting TNTs using RF and AuNPs. (B) Profiles of RF-triggered release of drug (indomethacin-encapsulated TPGS) from TNTs with and without AuNPs as energy transducer in comparison with the control (nontrigger) sample. Release profiles for different exposure times: (B) 5 minutes and (C) 10 minutes, respectively. Reproduced from Aw MS, Kurian M, Losic D. Non-eroding drug-releasing implants with ordered nanoporous and nanotubular structures: concepts for controlling drug release. Biomater Sci. 2014;2:10–34, with permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.85Abbreviations: AuNP, gold nanoparticle; RF, radiofrequency; TNT, titania nanotube.
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f7-ijn-11-4819: Schematic representation of a model drug release from TNTs implants for in vitro release studies with the RF trigger.Notes: (A) Noninvasive and on-demand triggered release from drug-eluting TNTs using RF and AuNPs. (B) Profiles of RF-triggered release of drug (indomethacin-encapsulated TPGS) from TNTs with and without AuNPs as energy transducer in comparison with the control (nontrigger) sample. Release profiles for different exposure times: (B) 5 minutes and (C) 10 minutes, respectively. Reproduced from Aw MS, Kurian M, Losic D. Non-eroding drug-releasing implants with ordered nanoporous and nanotubular structures: concepts for controlling drug release. Biomater Sci. 2014;2:10–34, with permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.85Abbreviations: AuNP, gold nanoparticle; RF, radiofrequency; TNT, titania nanotube.

Mentions: Radiofrequency (RF)-responsive release is an excellent strategy for satisfying some therapies that require the use of noninvasive external stimuli. This concept has been introduced into the drug release based on TNT implants as shown in Figure 7A.85 In this drug delivery system, RF was used as an external stimuli to trigger the release of polymeric micelles and drugs from TNT deposited gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Compared to release profiles under no-trigger conditions, the polymeric micelles displayed an abrupt in vitro release under RF triggering as shown in Figure 7B and C. From the results, it is demonstrated that near complete (90%–100%) release of all three samples was achieved within 1–3 hours after RF-induced heating of the AuNPs loaded inside TNTs. In addition, from the graphs, we also find that the drug release from AuNP-loaded TNTs is faster than drug-micelles release from AuNP-loaded TNTs, and drug-micelles without AuNPs achieved the lowest release. The release rate increases with extending the RF exposure time from 5 to 10 minutes, whereas there is no effect on drug-micelles release from TNTs without AuNP loading. Thus, it can be verified that AuNPs are good thermal transducers that transfer RF energy to trigger drug release from TNTs.


TiO 2 nanotube platforms for smart drug delivery: a review
Schematic representation of a model drug release from TNTs implants for in vitro release studies with the RF trigger.Notes: (A) Noninvasive and on-demand triggered release from drug-eluting TNTs using RF and AuNPs. (B) Profiles of RF-triggered release of drug (indomethacin-encapsulated TPGS) from TNTs with and without AuNPs as energy transducer in comparison with the control (nontrigger) sample. Release profiles for different exposure times: (B) 5 minutes and (C) 10 minutes, respectively. Reproduced from Aw MS, Kurian M, Losic D. Non-eroding drug-releasing implants with ordered nanoporous and nanotubular structures: concepts for controlling drug release. Biomater Sci. 2014;2:10–34, with permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.85Abbreviations: AuNP, gold nanoparticle; RF, radiofrequency; TNT, titania nanotube.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5036548&req=5

f7-ijn-11-4819: Schematic representation of a model drug release from TNTs implants for in vitro release studies with the RF trigger.Notes: (A) Noninvasive and on-demand triggered release from drug-eluting TNTs using RF and AuNPs. (B) Profiles of RF-triggered release of drug (indomethacin-encapsulated TPGS) from TNTs with and without AuNPs as energy transducer in comparison with the control (nontrigger) sample. Release profiles for different exposure times: (B) 5 minutes and (C) 10 minutes, respectively. Reproduced from Aw MS, Kurian M, Losic D. Non-eroding drug-releasing implants with ordered nanoporous and nanotubular structures: concepts for controlling drug release. Biomater Sci. 2014;2:10–34, with permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.85Abbreviations: AuNP, gold nanoparticle; RF, radiofrequency; TNT, titania nanotube.
Mentions: Radiofrequency (RF)-responsive release is an excellent strategy for satisfying some therapies that require the use of noninvasive external stimuli. This concept has been introduced into the drug release based on TNT implants as shown in Figure 7A.85 In this drug delivery system, RF was used as an external stimuli to trigger the release of polymeric micelles and drugs from TNT deposited gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Compared to release profiles under no-trigger conditions, the polymeric micelles displayed an abrupt in vitro release under RF triggering as shown in Figure 7B and C. From the results, it is demonstrated that near complete (90%–100%) release of all three samples was achieved within 1–3 hours after RF-induced heating of the AuNPs loaded inside TNTs. In addition, from the graphs, we also find that the drug release from AuNP-loaded TNTs is faster than drug-micelles release from AuNP-loaded TNTs, and drug-micelles without AuNPs achieved the lowest release. The release rate increases with extending the RF exposure time from 5 to 10 minutes, whereas there is no effect on drug-micelles release from TNTs without AuNP loading. Thus, it can be verified that AuNPs are good thermal transducers that transfer RF energy to trigger drug release from TNTs.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Titania nanotube (TNT) arrays are recognized as promising materials for localized drug delivery implants because of their excellent properties and facile preparation process. This review highlights the concept of localized drug delivery systems based on TNTs, considering their outstanding biocompatibility in a series of ex vivo and in vivo studies. Considering the safety of TNT implants in the host body, studies of the biocompatibility present significant importance for the clinical application of TNT implants. Toward smart TNT platforms for sustainable drug delivery, several advanced approaches were presented in this review, including controlled release triggered by temperature, light, radiofrequency magnetism, and ultrasonic stimulation. Moreover, TNT implants used in medical therapy have been demonstrated by various examples including dentistry, orthopedic implants, cardiovascular stents, and so on. Finally, a future perspective of TNTs for clinical applications is provided.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus