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TiO 2 nanotube platforms for smart drug delivery: a review

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ABSTRACT

Titania nanotube (TNT) arrays are recognized as promising materials for localized drug delivery implants because of their excellent properties and facile preparation process. This review highlights the concept of localized drug delivery systems based on TNTs, considering their outstanding biocompatibility in a series of ex vivo and in vivo studies. Considering the safety of TNT implants in the host body, studies of the biocompatibility present significant importance for the clinical application of TNT implants. Toward smart TNT platforms for sustainable drug delivery, several advanced approaches were presented in this review, including controlled release triggered by temperature, light, radiofrequency magnetism, and ultrasonic stimulation. Moreover, TNT implants used in medical therapy have been demonstrated by various examples including dentistry, orthopedic implants, cardiovascular stents, and so on. Finally, a future perspective of TNTs for clinical applications is provided.

No MeSH data available.


The formation and structure of TNTs.Notes: (A) and (B) Electrochemical cell and anodization process for the formation of TNT layer on Ti substrate. SEM images of TNTs for (C) bottom and side surface and (D) top surface. (A) Reprinted Curr Opin Solid State Mater Sci, 11, Macak JM, Tsuchiya H, Ghicov A, et al, TiO2 nanotubes: self-organized electrochemical formation, properties and applications, 3–18,34 copyright 2007, with permission from Elsevier. (B) Reproduced from Ge MZ, Cao CY, Li SH, et al. In situ plasmonic Ag nanoparticle anchored TiO2 nanotube arrays as visible-light-driven photocatalysts for enhanced water splitting. Nanoscale. 2016;8:5226–5234,43 with permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry. (C, D) Reprinted with permission from Paulose M, Shankar K, Yoriya S, et al. Anodic growth of highly ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays to 134 μm in length. J Phys Chem B. 2006;110:16179–16184.20 Copyright 2006 American Chemical Society.Abbreviations: SEM, scanning electron microscope; TNT, titania nanotube.
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f1-ijn-11-4819: The formation and structure of TNTs.Notes: (A) and (B) Electrochemical cell and anodization process for the formation of TNT layer on Ti substrate. SEM images of TNTs for (C) bottom and side surface and (D) top surface. (A) Reprinted Curr Opin Solid State Mater Sci, 11, Macak JM, Tsuchiya H, Ghicov A, et al, TiO2 nanotubes: self-organized electrochemical formation, properties and applications, 3–18,34 copyright 2007, with permission from Elsevier. (B) Reproduced from Ge MZ, Cao CY, Li SH, et al. In situ plasmonic Ag nanoparticle anchored TiO2 nanotube arrays as visible-light-driven photocatalysts for enhanced water splitting. Nanoscale. 2016;8:5226–5234,43 with permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry. (C, D) Reprinted with permission from Paulose M, Shankar K, Yoriya S, et al. Anodic growth of highly ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays to 134 μm in length. J Phys Chem B. 2006;110:16179–16184.20 Copyright 2006 American Chemical Society.Abbreviations: SEM, scanning electron microscope; TNT, titania nanotube.

Mentions: TNTs prepared by anodizing metallic titanium (Ti) in an electrolyte are recognized as one of the most outstanding drug-releasing implants in drug delivery systems.30,31 Some researchers have explored the optimization in anodization parameters to achieve a high degree of self-ordering in the grown TNTs.32–41 TNT arrays with controllable nanotube diameters and hexagonal arrangement fabricated by electrochemical anodization based on Ti surface with highly ordered nanotube structures are schematically shown in Figure 1.34,42,43 TNT fabrication is a unique electrochemical process termed self-assembling anodization,44 which is based on inexpensive materials and equipment. The dimension of TNTs could be adjusted by electrochemical anodization parameters including the anodization voltage, time, the composition of electrolyte, and so on.44–49 TNTs can be fabricated on various structures including three dimensional nonplanar and curved surfaces such as thin, long surgical wires and needles for bone fixture. Considering this versatility, TNTs are clinically used as implants or surgical supports in orthopedics because of their excellent malleability and biocompatibility in the host body.


TiO 2 nanotube platforms for smart drug delivery: a review
The formation and structure of TNTs.Notes: (A) and (B) Electrochemical cell and anodization process for the formation of TNT layer on Ti substrate. SEM images of TNTs for (C) bottom and side surface and (D) top surface. (A) Reprinted Curr Opin Solid State Mater Sci, 11, Macak JM, Tsuchiya H, Ghicov A, et al, TiO2 nanotubes: self-organized electrochemical formation, properties and applications, 3–18,34 copyright 2007, with permission from Elsevier. (B) Reproduced from Ge MZ, Cao CY, Li SH, et al. In situ plasmonic Ag nanoparticle anchored TiO2 nanotube arrays as visible-light-driven photocatalysts for enhanced water splitting. Nanoscale. 2016;8:5226–5234,43 with permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry. (C, D) Reprinted with permission from Paulose M, Shankar K, Yoriya S, et al. Anodic growth of highly ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays to 134 μm in length. J Phys Chem B. 2006;110:16179–16184.20 Copyright 2006 American Chemical Society.Abbreviations: SEM, scanning electron microscope; TNT, titania nanotube.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5036548&req=5

f1-ijn-11-4819: The formation and structure of TNTs.Notes: (A) and (B) Electrochemical cell and anodization process for the formation of TNT layer on Ti substrate. SEM images of TNTs for (C) bottom and side surface and (D) top surface. (A) Reprinted Curr Opin Solid State Mater Sci, 11, Macak JM, Tsuchiya H, Ghicov A, et al, TiO2 nanotubes: self-organized electrochemical formation, properties and applications, 3–18,34 copyright 2007, with permission from Elsevier. (B) Reproduced from Ge MZ, Cao CY, Li SH, et al. In situ plasmonic Ag nanoparticle anchored TiO2 nanotube arrays as visible-light-driven photocatalysts for enhanced water splitting. Nanoscale. 2016;8:5226–5234,43 with permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry. (C, D) Reprinted with permission from Paulose M, Shankar K, Yoriya S, et al. Anodic growth of highly ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays to 134 μm in length. J Phys Chem B. 2006;110:16179–16184.20 Copyright 2006 American Chemical Society.Abbreviations: SEM, scanning electron microscope; TNT, titania nanotube.
Mentions: TNTs prepared by anodizing metallic titanium (Ti) in an electrolyte are recognized as one of the most outstanding drug-releasing implants in drug delivery systems.30,31 Some researchers have explored the optimization in anodization parameters to achieve a high degree of self-ordering in the grown TNTs.32–41 TNT arrays with controllable nanotube diameters and hexagonal arrangement fabricated by electrochemical anodization based on Ti surface with highly ordered nanotube structures are schematically shown in Figure 1.34,42,43 TNT fabrication is a unique electrochemical process termed self-assembling anodization,44 which is based on inexpensive materials and equipment. The dimension of TNTs could be adjusted by electrochemical anodization parameters including the anodization voltage, time, the composition of electrolyte, and so on.44–49 TNTs can be fabricated on various structures including three dimensional nonplanar and curved surfaces such as thin, long surgical wires and needles for bone fixture. Considering this versatility, TNTs are clinically used as implants or surgical supports in orthopedics because of their excellent malleability and biocompatibility in the host body.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Titania nanotube (TNT) arrays are recognized as promising materials for localized drug delivery implants because of their excellent properties and facile preparation process. This review highlights the concept of localized drug delivery systems based on TNTs, considering their outstanding biocompatibility in a series of ex vivo and in vivo studies. Considering the safety of TNT implants in the host body, studies of the biocompatibility present significant importance for the clinical application of TNT implants. Toward smart TNT platforms for sustainable drug delivery, several advanced approaches were presented in this review, including controlled release triggered by temperature, light, radiofrequency magnetism, and ultrasonic stimulation. Moreover, TNT implants used in medical therapy have been demonstrated by various examples including dentistry, orthopedic implants, cardiovascular stents, and so on. Finally, a future perspective of TNTs for clinical applications is provided.

No MeSH data available.