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Shape-memory surfaces for cell mechanobiology

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Shape-memory polymers (SMPs) are a new class of smart materials, which have the capability to change from a temporary shape ‘A’ to a memorized permanent shape ‘B’ upon application of an external stimulus. In recent years, SMPs have attracted much attention from basic and fundamental research to industrial and practical applications due to the cheap and efficient alternative to well-known metallic shape-memory alloys. Since the shape-memory effect in SMPs is not related to a specific material property of single polymers, the control of nanoarchitecture of polymer networks is particularly important for the smart functions of SMPs. Such nanoarchitectonic approaches have enabled us to further create shape-memory surfaces (SMSs) with tunable surface topography at nano scale. The present review aims to bring together the exciting design of SMSs and the ever-expanding range of their uses as tools to control cell functions. The goal for these endeavors is to mimic the surrounding mechanical cues of extracellular environments which have been considered as critical parameters in cell fate determination. The untapped potential of SMSs makes them one of the most exciting interfaces of materials science and cell mechanobiology.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The tripartite axes of cues which act on cells. These factors influence the orchestration of cellular function such as tissue regeneration, organogenesis, cancer metastasis etc.
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Figure 4: The tripartite axes of cues which act on cells. These factors influence the orchestration of cellular function such as tissue regeneration, organogenesis, cancer metastasis etc.

Mentions: Recent reports have revealed that many types of cells have the capability of sensing and reacting to the surrounding cues of the ECM. More recently, the cell–ECM interactions are considered to be important extrinsic factors that regulate cell fate because determination of cellular phenotypes is considered to be governed by a complex set of extrinsic cues in collaboration with intrinsic gene regulatory machinery [71, 72]. Figure 4 shows three principal axes which act on cells. Among those extrinsic cues, an increasing number of studies have shown that the mechanostructural stimuli such as elasticity, topography and mechanical force alter cell migration, over all morphology, the structure of the cytoskeleton, expression of specific genes, as well as the lineage of stem cell differentiation [73]. For example, stiff gels promote spreading and scattering of adherent cells, while soft gels promote soft tissue differentiation and tissue-like cell–cell associations. In addition, adherent cells migrate preferentially toward stiffer regions. Engler et al first reported that differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is highly sensitive to substrate stiffness [74].


Shape-memory surfaces for cell mechanobiology
The tripartite axes of cues which act on cells. These factors influence the orchestration of cellular function such as tissue regeneration, organogenesis, cancer metastasis etc.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5036502&req=5

Figure 4: The tripartite axes of cues which act on cells. These factors influence the orchestration of cellular function such as tissue regeneration, organogenesis, cancer metastasis etc.
Mentions: Recent reports have revealed that many types of cells have the capability of sensing and reacting to the surrounding cues of the ECM. More recently, the cell–ECM interactions are considered to be important extrinsic factors that regulate cell fate because determination of cellular phenotypes is considered to be governed by a complex set of extrinsic cues in collaboration with intrinsic gene regulatory machinery [71, 72]. Figure 4 shows three principal axes which act on cells. Among those extrinsic cues, an increasing number of studies have shown that the mechanostructural stimuli such as elasticity, topography and mechanical force alter cell migration, over all morphology, the structure of the cytoskeleton, expression of specific genes, as well as the lineage of stem cell differentiation [73]. For example, stiff gels promote spreading and scattering of adherent cells, while soft gels promote soft tissue differentiation and tissue-like cell–cell associations. In addition, adherent cells migrate preferentially toward stiffer regions. Engler et al first reported that differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is highly sensitive to substrate stiffness [74].

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Shape-memory polymers (SMPs) are a new class of smart materials, which have the capability to change from a temporary shape ‘A’ to a memorized permanent shape ‘B’ upon application of an external stimulus. In recent years, SMPs have attracted much attention from basic and fundamental research to industrial and practical applications due to the cheap and efficient alternative to well-known metallic shape-memory alloys. Since the shape-memory effect in SMPs is not related to a specific material property of single polymers, the control of nanoarchitecture of polymer networks is particularly important for the smart functions of SMPs. Such nanoarchitectonic approaches have enabled us to further create shape-memory surfaces (SMSs) with tunable surface topography at nano scale. The present review aims to bring together the exciting design of SMSs and the ever-expanding range of their uses as tools to control cell functions. The goal for these endeavors is to mimic the surrounding mechanical cues of extracellular environments which have been considered as critical parameters in cell fate determination. The untapped potential of SMSs makes them one of the most exciting interfaces of materials science and cell mechanobiology.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus