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Shape-memory surfaces for cell mechanobiology

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Shape-memory polymers (SMPs) are a new class of smart materials, which have the capability to change from a temporary shape ‘A’ to a memorized permanent shape ‘B’ upon application of an external stimulus. In recent years, SMPs have attracted much attention from basic and fundamental research to industrial and practical applications due to the cheap and efficient alternative to well-known metallic shape-memory alloys. Since the shape-memory effect in SMPs is not related to a specific material property of single polymers, the control of nanoarchitecture of polymer networks is particularly important for the smart functions of SMPs. Such nanoarchitectonic approaches have enabled us to further create shape-memory surfaces (SMSs) with tunable surface topography at nano scale. The present review aims to bring together the exciting design of SMSs and the ever-expanding range of their uses as tools to control cell functions. The goal for these endeavors is to mimic the surrounding mechanical cues of extracellular environments which have been considered as critical parameters in cell fate determination. The untapped potential of SMSs makes them one of the most exciting interfaces of materials science and cell mechanobiology.

No MeSH data available.


Classification on the basis of types of polymer network architecture: physically cross-linked (type I) and covalently cross-linked SMPs (type II), and physically or chemically cross-linked shape-memory multinetwork and composites as multifunctional materials (type III).
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Figure 3: Classification on the basis of types of polymer network architecture: physically cross-linked (type I) and covalently cross-linked SMPs (type II), and physically or chemically cross-linked shape-memory multinetwork and composites as multifunctional materials (type III).

Mentions: Since there are many types of polymers that have the ability to change their shape when triggered by external stimuli, the definition of ‘shape memory’ is often confusing. Behl and Lendlein, who are authorities in the field of SMP systems, have propounded two general categories of such materials, namely, ‘shape-memory’ and ‘shape-changing’ [38, 39]. In this review, we focused on ‘shape-memory’ in a polymer system according to their definition. Because the shape-memory effect in SMPs is not related to a specific material property of single polymers, the control of molecular structure and architecture is particularly important for the functions of SMPs. For the thermally induced SMPs, the mechanism of shape-memory effect is based on the formation of a molecular switching domain, which changes the structural properties in response to a temperature change. From these perspectives, the SMP system can be broadly classified into two types of network architecture: (1) a physically cross-linked network (type I) and (2) a covalently cross-linked network (type II) (figure 3). These can also be specifically separated by type of switching temperature (Tswitch), that is, Tg and Tm. This classification, in other words, categorized their differences in fixing mechanism and origin of permanent shapes, which is also the ‘states’ of their architectures. One of the most important characteristics required for SMPs in cell mechanobiology is that they can actuate under biological conditions. It should be also more beneficial if they actuate sharply in a narrow temperature range. Moreover, biocompatibility is necessary to culture cells on them. In this section, the recent progresses of SMP systems based on the above categories are discussed.


Shape-memory surfaces for cell mechanobiology
Classification on the basis of types of polymer network architecture: physically cross-linked (type I) and covalently cross-linked SMPs (type II), and physically or chemically cross-linked shape-memory multinetwork and composites as multifunctional materials (type III).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5036502&req=5

Figure 3: Classification on the basis of types of polymer network architecture: physically cross-linked (type I) and covalently cross-linked SMPs (type II), and physically or chemically cross-linked shape-memory multinetwork and composites as multifunctional materials (type III).
Mentions: Since there are many types of polymers that have the ability to change their shape when triggered by external stimuli, the definition of ‘shape memory’ is often confusing. Behl and Lendlein, who are authorities in the field of SMP systems, have propounded two general categories of such materials, namely, ‘shape-memory’ and ‘shape-changing’ [38, 39]. In this review, we focused on ‘shape-memory’ in a polymer system according to their definition. Because the shape-memory effect in SMPs is not related to a specific material property of single polymers, the control of molecular structure and architecture is particularly important for the functions of SMPs. For the thermally induced SMPs, the mechanism of shape-memory effect is based on the formation of a molecular switching domain, which changes the structural properties in response to a temperature change. From these perspectives, the SMP system can be broadly classified into two types of network architecture: (1) a physically cross-linked network (type I) and (2) a covalently cross-linked network (type II) (figure 3). These can also be specifically separated by type of switching temperature (Tswitch), that is, Tg and Tm. This classification, in other words, categorized their differences in fixing mechanism and origin of permanent shapes, which is also the ‘states’ of their architectures. One of the most important characteristics required for SMPs in cell mechanobiology is that they can actuate under biological conditions. It should be also more beneficial if they actuate sharply in a narrow temperature range. Moreover, biocompatibility is necessary to culture cells on them. In this section, the recent progresses of SMP systems based on the above categories are discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Shape-memory polymers (SMPs) are a new class of smart materials, which have the capability to change from a temporary shape ‘A’ to a memorized permanent shape ‘B’ upon application of an external stimulus. In recent years, SMPs have attracted much attention from basic and fundamental research to industrial and practical applications due to the cheap and efficient alternative to well-known metallic shape-memory alloys. Since the shape-memory effect in SMPs is not related to a specific material property of single polymers, the control of nanoarchitecture of polymer networks is particularly important for the smart functions of SMPs. Such nanoarchitectonic approaches have enabled us to further create shape-memory surfaces (SMSs) with tunable surface topography at nano scale. The present review aims to bring together the exciting design of SMSs and the ever-expanding range of their uses as tools to control cell functions. The goal for these endeavors is to mimic the surrounding mechanical cues of extracellular environments which have been considered as critical parameters in cell fate determination. The untapped potential of SMSs makes them one of the most exciting interfaces of materials science and cell mechanobiology.

No MeSH data available.