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Synthesis of fullerene nanowhiskers using the liquid – liquid interfacial precipitation method and their mechanical, electrical and superconducting properties

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ABSTRACT

Fullerene nanowhiskers (FNWs) are thin crystalline fibers composed of fullerene molecules, including C60, C70, endohedral, or functionalized fullerenes. FNWs display n-type semiconducting behavior and are used in a diverse range of applications, including field-effect transistors, solar cells, chemical sensors, and photocatalysts. Alkali metal-doped C60 (fullerene) nanowhiskers (C60NWs) exhibit superconducting behavior. Potassium-doped C60NWs have realized the highest superconducting volume fraction of the alkali metal-doped C60 crystals and display a high critical current density (Jc) under a high magnetic field of 50 kOe. The growth control of FNWs is important for their success in practical applications. This paper reviews recent FNWs research focusing on their mechanical, electrical and superconducting properties and growth mechanisms in the liquid–liquid interfacial precipitation method.

No MeSH data available.


Electrical resistivity of C60 whiskers measured as a function of diameter. The resistivity measurement was performed by the two-point probe method (2PP) in (a) and by the four-point probe method (4PP) in (b). [6] in the inset of (b) is identical with [70]. FIB stands for focused ion beam. Part (a) reprinted with permission from [70], copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Part (b) reproduced by permission of ECS—The Electrochemical Society from [71]
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Figure 5: Electrical resistivity of C60 whiskers measured as a function of diameter. The resistivity measurement was performed by the two-point probe method (2PP) in (a) and by the four-point probe method (4PP) in (b). [6] in the inset of (b) is identical with [70]. FIB stands for focused ion beam. Part (a) reprinted with permission from [70], copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Part (b) reproduced by permission of ECS—The Electrochemical Society from [71]

Mentions: The electrical resistivity of C60 whiskers with diameters greater than 1 μm (∼10–a few hundred micrometers) was measured using a two-terminal method at ambient temperature [70]. The electrical resistivity of the C60 whiskers decreased dramatically with decreasing diameter (figure 5(a)). The resistivity of C60NWs is expected to be several Ohm centimeters (Ω cm), based on extrapolation of the curve-fitted data. Subsequently, Larsson et al measured the electrical resistivity using a four-point probe method [71]. Figure 5(b) summarizes their results including figure 5(a) [70]. The four-point probe method also showed a decrease in resistivity of C60 whiskers with decreasing diameter (FIB-spot (4PP)), figure 5(b)). A C60NW with a diameter of 650 nm showed a low resistivity of 3 Ω cm [71]. The decrease in resistivity with decreasing diameter suggested that C60NWs with smaller diameters and shorter C60 intermolecular distances are more crystalline and thus have a greater overlap of π electrons [70]. Recently, this fact was further confirmed by Barzegar et al using thinner C60NWs [93]. It was shown that the electrical mobility of as-grown C60NWs with diameters less than 300 nm increases with decreasing the diameter of C60NWs [64, 93–95].


Synthesis of fullerene nanowhiskers using the liquid – liquid interfacial precipitation method and their mechanical, electrical and superconducting properties
Electrical resistivity of C60 whiskers measured as a function of diameter. The resistivity measurement was performed by the two-point probe method (2PP) in (a) and by the four-point probe method (4PP) in (b). [6] in the inset of (b) is identical with [70]. FIB stands for focused ion beam. Part (a) reprinted with permission from [70], copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Part (b) reproduced by permission of ECS—The Electrochemical Society from [71]
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5036494&req=5

Figure 5: Electrical resistivity of C60 whiskers measured as a function of diameter. The resistivity measurement was performed by the two-point probe method (2PP) in (a) and by the four-point probe method (4PP) in (b). [6] in the inset of (b) is identical with [70]. FIB stands for focused ion beam. Part (a) reprinted with permission from [70], copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Part (b) reproduced by permission of ECS—The Electrochemical Society from [71]
Mentions: The electrical resistivity of C60 whiskers with diameters greater than 1 μm (∼10–a few hundred micrometers) was measured using a two-terminal method at ambient temperature [70]. The electrical resistivity of the C60 whiskers decreased dramatically with decreasing diameter (figure 5(a)). The resistivity of C60NWs is expected to be several Ohm centimeters (Ω cm), based on extrapolation of the curve-fitted data. Subsequently, Larsson et al measured the electrical resistivity using a four-point probe method [71]. Figure 5(b) summarizes their results including figure 5(a) [70]. The four-point probe method also showed a decrease in resistivity of C60 whiskers with decreasing diameter (FIB-spot (4PP)), figure 5(b)). A C60NW with a diameter of 650 nm showed a low resistivity of 3 Ω cm [71]. The decrease in resistivity with decreasing diameter suggested that C60NWs with smaller diameters and shorter C60 intermolecular distances are more crystalline and thus have a greater overlap of π electrons [70]. Recently, this fact was further confirmed by Barzegar et al using thinner C60NWs [93]. It was shown that the electrical mobility of as-grown C60NWs with diameters less than 300 nm increases with decreasing the diameter of C60NWs [64, 93–95].

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Fullerene nanowhiskers (FNWs) are thin crystalline fibers composed of fullerene molecules, including C60, C70, endohedral, or functionalized fullerenes. FNWs display n-type semiconducting behavior and are used in a diverse range of applications, including field-effect transistors, solar cells, chemical sensors, and photocatalysts. Alkali metal-doped C60 (fullerene) nanowhiskers (C60NWs) exhibit superconducting behavior. Potassium-doped C60NWs have realized the highest superconducting volume fraction of the alkali metal-doped C60 crystals and display a high critical current density (Jc) under a high magnetic field of 50 kOe. The growth control of FNWs is important for their success in practical applications. This paper reviews recent FNWs research focusing on their mechanical, electrical and superconducting properties and growth mechanisms in the liquid–liquid interfacial precipitation method.

No MeSH data available.