Limits...
Synthesis of fullerene nanowhiskers using the liquid – liquid interfacial precipitation method and their mechanical, electrical and superconducting properties

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Fullerene nanowhiskers (FNWs) are thin crystalline fibers composed of fullerene molecules, including C60, C70, endohedral, or functionalized fullerenes. FNWs display n-type semiconducting behavior and are used in a diverse range of applications, including field-effect transistors, solar cells, chemical sensors, and photocatalysts. Alkali metal-doped C60 (fullerene) nanowhiskers (C60NWs) exhibit superconducting behavior. Potassium-doped C60NWs have realized the highest superconducting volume fraction of the alkali metal-doped C60 crystals and display a high critical current density (Jc) under a high magnetic field of 50 kOe. The growth control of FNWs is important for their success in practical applications. This paper reviews recent FNWs research focusing on their mechanical, electrical and superconducting properties and growth mechanisms in the liquid–liquid interfacial precipitation method.

No MeSH data available.


(a) Relationship between solution volume and mean length of C60NWs. The equation fitted to the data is y = −11.6exp(−x/18.7) + 16.6. (b) Relationship between solution volume and mean diameter of C60NWs. The equation fitted to the data is y = −396.6exp(−x/17.6) + 783.7. (c) Relationship between solution volume and the mean aspect ratio of C60NWs. The equation fitted to the data is y = −9exp(−x/14.2) + 22.1. (d) Estimated number of C60NWs per unit volume plotted versus the solution volume. The equation fitted to the data is y = −1.12496 × 109x−0.5674. Reprinted from [62], copyright 2014, with permission from Elsevier.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5036494&req=5

Figure 2: (a) Relationship between solution volume and mean length of C60NWs. The equation fitted to the data is y = −11.6exp(−x/18.7) + 16.6. (b) Relationship between solution volume and mean diameter of C60NWs. The equation fitted to the data is y = −396.6exp(−x/17.6) + 783.7. (c) Relationship between solution volume and the mean aspect ratio of C60NWs. The equation fitted to the data is y = −9exp(−x/14.2) + 22.1. (d) Estimated number of C60NWs per unit volume plotted versus the solution volume. The equation fitted to the data is y = −1.12496 × 109x−0.5674. Reprinted from [62], copyright 2014, with permission from Elsevier.

Mentions: Size control of fullerene nanofibers is critical for practical applications. Wakahara et al reported that the diameter of C60NWs varied with the size of the glass bottles used in their synthesis. Linear relationships between the area of the liquid–liquid interface and the diameter of C60NWs were observed when the total volume of solution was fixed [61]. Changes in the lengths and diameters of C60NWs upon varying the solution volume have been examined [62]. These C60NWs were prepared by dynamic LLIP in a C60-saturated toluene and IPA system. After the initial formation of a liquid–liquid interface by layering an equal amount of IPA on a C60-saturated toluene solution, the solution was manually mixed by shaking 30 times. The relationships between solution volume and mean length, diameter and aspect ratio are shown in figures 2(a)–(c) [62]. The aspect ratio, as derived from the y-intercepts of figures 2(a) and (b) (5.02 μm/387 nm) yielded a value of 13.0, almost identical to the value derived from the y-intercept of figure 2(c) (13.1). Hence, it is reasonable to consider the size of C60NW nuclei can be estimated using the relationships shown in figures 2(a)–(c).


Synthesis of fullerene nanowhiskers using the liquid – liquid interfacial precipitation method and their mechanical, electrical and superconducting properties
(a) Relationship between solution volume and mean length of C60NWs. The equation fitted to the data is y = −11.6exp(−x/18.7) + 16.6. (b) Relationship between solution volume and mean diameter of C60NWs. The equation fitted to the data is y = −396.6exp(−x/17.6) + 783.7. (c) Relationship between solution volume and the mean aspect ratio of C60NWs. The equation fitted to the data is y = −9exp(−x/14.2) + 22.1. (d) Estimated number of C60NWs per unit volume plotted versus the solution volume. The equation fitted to the data is y = −1.12496 × 109x−0.5674. Reprinted from [62], copyright 2014, with permission from Elsevier.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5036494&req=5

Figure 2: (a) Relationship between solution volume and mean length of C60NWs. The equation fitted to the data is y = −11.6exp(−x/18.7) + 16.6. (b) Relationship between solution volume and mean diameter of C60NWs. The equation fitted to the data is y = −396.6exp(−x/17.6) + 783.7. (c) Relationship between solution volume and the mean aspect ratio of C60NWs. The equation fitted to the data is y = −9exp(−x/14.2) + 22.1. (d) Estimated number of C60NWs per unit volume plotted versus the solution volume. The equation fitted to the data is y = −1.12496 × 109x−0.5674. Reprinted from [62], copyright 2014, with permission from Elsevier.
Mentions: Size control of fullerene nanofibers is critical for practical applications. Wakahara et al reported that the diameter of C60NWs varied with the size of the glass bottles used in their synthesis. Linear relationships between the area of the liquid–liquid interface and the diameter of C60NWs were observed when the total volume of solution was fixed [61]. Changes in the lengths and diameters of C60NWs upon varying the solution volume have been examined [62]. These C60NWs were prepared by dynamic LLIP in a C60-saturated toluene and IPA system. After the initial formation of a liquid–liquid interface by layering an equal amount of IPA on a C60-saturated toluene solution, the solution was manually mixed by shaking 30 times. The relationships between solution volume and mean length, diameter and aspect ratio are shown in figures 2(a)–(c) [62]. The aspect ratio, as derived from the y-intercepts of figures 2(a) and (b) (5.02 μm/387 nm) yielded a value of 13.0, almost identical to the value derived from the y-intercept of figure 2(c) (13.1). Hence, it is reasonable to consider the size of C60NW nuclei can be estimated using the relationships shown in figures 2(a)–(c).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Fullerene nanowhiskers (FNWs) are thin crystalline fibers composed of fullerene molecules, including C60, C70, endohedral, or functionalized fullerenes. FNWs display n-type semiconducting behavior and are used in a diverse range of applications, including field-effect transistors, solar cells, chemical sensors, and photocatalysts. Alkali metal-doped C60 (fullerene) nanowhiskers (C60NWs) exhibit superconducting behavior. Potassium-doped C60NWs have realized the highest superconducting volume fraction of the alkali metal-doped C60 crystals and display a high critical current density (Jc) under a high magnetic field of 50 kOe. The growth control of FNWs is important for their success in practical applications. This paper reviews recent FNWs research focusing on their mechanical, electrical and superconducting properties and growth mechanisms in the liquid–liquid interfacial precipitation method.

No MeSH data available.