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Nano and micro architectures for self-propelled motors

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Self-propelled micromotors are emerging as important tools that help us understand the fundamentals of motion at the microscale and the nanoscale. Development of the motors for various biomedical and environmental applications is being pursued. Multiple fabrication methods can be used to construct the geometries of different sizes of motors. Here, we present an overview of appropriate methods of fabrication according to both size and shape requirements and the concept of guiding the catalytic motors within the confines of wall. Micromotors have also been incorporated with biological systems for a new type of fabrication method for bioinspired hybrid motors using three-dimensional (3D) printing technology. The 3D printed hybrid and bioinspired motors can be propelled by using ultrasound or live cells, offering a more biocompatible approach when compared to traditional catalytic motors.

No MeSH data available.


Hybrid microbiorobots. (a) and (b) SEM images of electrochemically fabricated polymer and microtubes, respectively. (c) Bright field image of a biohybrid motor with a single E. coli bacteria trapped inside a microtube.
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Figure 4: Hybrid microbiorobots. (a) and (b) SEM images of electrochemically fabricated polymer and microtubes, respectively. (c) Bright field image of a biohybrid motor with a single E. coli bacteria trapped inside a microtube.

Mentions: In addition to catalytic propulsion, alternative methods for micromotor design should be considered for systems requiring biocompatibility. Biohybrid motors incorporate a living cell into an architecture fabricated from artificial components [58]. Instead of chemically driven micromotor propulsion, which can be toxic to cells, biohybrid motors harvest the mechanical energy of motile cells to drive a motor or perform an assigned task. Biologically driven motors can be externally guided and controlled by biochemical, magnetic, or mechanical stimuli [59]. The electrochemically constructed microtubes of conductive polymers, as seen in figures 4(a) and (b), can be modified with other metals or surface chemistry. The microdimensions of these tubes (5–6 μm long and 1 μm in diameter) offer an ideal frame for smaller cell types, specifically bacteria. Bacteria are capable of multiple types of mobility and are an inexpensive system to convert mechanical motion into controlled propulsion, as they are abundant and simple to culture.


Nano and micro architectures for self-propelled motors
Hybrid microbiorobots. (a) and (b) SEM images of electrochemically fabricated polymer and microtubes, respectively. (c) Bright field image of a biohybrid motor with a single E. coli bacteria trapped inside a microtube.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5036491&req=5

Figure 4: Hybrid microbiorobots. (a) and (b) SEM images of electrochemically fabricated polymer and microtubes, respectively. (c) Bright field image of a biohybrid motor with a single E. coli bacteria trapped inside a microtube.
Mentions: In addition to catalytic propulsion, alternative methods for micromotor design should be considered for systems requiring biocompatibility. Biohybrid motors incorporate a living cell into an architecture fabricated from artificial components [58]. Instead of chemically driven micromotor propulsion, which can be toxic to cells, biohybrid motors harvest the mechanical energy of motile cells to drive a motor or perform an assigned task. Biologically driven motors can be externally guided and controlled by biochemical, magnetic, or mechanical stimuli [59]. The electrochemically constructed microtubes of conductive polymers, as seen in figures 4(a) and (b), can be modified with other metals or surface chemistry. The microdimensions of these tubes (5–6 μm long and 1 μm in diameter) offer an ideal frame for smaller cell types, specifically bacteria. Bacteria are capable of multiple types of mobility and are an inexpensive system to convert mechanical motion into controlled propulsion, as they are abundant and simple to culture.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Self-propelled micromotors are emerging as important tools that help us understand the fundamentals of motion at the microscale and the nanoscale. Development of the motors for various biomedical and environmental applications is being pursued. Multiple fabrication methods can be used to construct the geometries of different sizes of motors. Here, we present an overview of appropriate methods of fabrication according to both size and shape requirements and the concept of guiding the catalytic motors within the confines of wall. Micromotors have also been incorporated with biological systems for a new type of fabrication method for bioinspired hybrid motors using three-dimensional (3D) printing technology. The 3D printed hybrid and bioinspired motors can be propelled by using ultrasound or live cells, offering a more biocompatible approach when compared to traditional catalytic motors.

No MeSH data available.