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Low temperature and cost-effective growth of vertically aligned carbon nanofibers using spin-coated polymer-stabilized palladium nanocatalysts

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ABSTRACT

We describe a fast and cost-effective process for the growth of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) at a temperature compatible with complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology, using highly stable polymer–Pd nanohybrid colloidal solutions of palladium catalyst nanoparticles (NPs). Two polymer–Pd nanohybrids, namely poly(lauryl methacrylate)-block-poly((2-acetoacetoxy)ethyl methacrylate)/Pd (LauMAx-b-AEMAy/Pd) and polyvinylpyrrolidone/Pd were prepared in organic solvents and spin-coated onto silicon substrates. Subsequently, vertically aligned CNFs were grown on these NPs by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition at different temperatures. The electrical properties of the grown CNFs were evaluated using an electrochemical method, commonly used for the characterization of supercapacitors. The results show that the polymer–Pd nanohybrid solutions offer the optimum size range of palladium catalyst NPs enabling the growth of CNFs at temperatures as low as 350 °C. Furthermore, the CNFs grown at such a low temperature are vertically aligned similar to the CNFs grown at 550 °C. Finally the capacitive behavior of these CNFs was similar to that of the CNFs grown at high temperature assuring the same electrical properties thus enabling their usage in different applications such as on-chip capacitors, interconnects, thermal heat sink and energy storage solutions.

No MeSH data available.


(a) Cyclic voltammetry curves of CNFs grown using solution A and solution B at 350 °C and 390 °C. (b) Specific capacitance (mF cm−2 foot print area) versus voltage scan rate. (c) Cycle life of solution B (normalized by specific capacitance of first cycle). (d) Cycles from 980 to 999.
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Figure 5: (a) Cyclic voltammetry curves of CNFs grown using solution A and solution B at 350 °C and 390 °C. (b) Specific capacitance (mF cm−2 foot print area) versus voltage scan rate. (c) Cycle life of solution B (normalized by specific capacitance of first cycle). (d) Cycles from 980 to 999.

Mentions: The CV curves for the electrical characterization of the CNFs grown using the PVP–Pd and the LauMAx-b-AEMAy-Pd solutions are provided in figures 4(a), (b) and 5(a). The specific capacitance (mF cm−2 footprint area) curves measured at difference voltage scan rate are shown in figures 4(c) and 5(b). The cyclability curves for 1000 cycles are shown in figures 4(d) and 5(c) whereas magnified images of the last 20 cycles from 980 to 999 are shown in figures 4(e) and 5(d).


Low temperature and cost-effective growth of vertically aligned carbon nanofibers using spin-coated polymer-stabilized palladium nanocatalysts
(a) Cyclic voltammetry curves of CNFs grown using solution A and solution B at 350 °C and 390 °C. (b) Specific capacitance (mF cm−2 foot print area) versus voltage scan rate. (c) Cycle life of solution B (normalized by specific capacitance of first cycle). (d) Cycles from 980 to 999.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5036482&req=5

Figure 5: (a) Cyclic voltammetry curves of CNFs grown using solution A and solution B at 350 °C and 390 °C. (b) Specific capacitance (mF cm−2 foot print area) versus voltage scan rate. (c) Cycle life of solution B (normalized by specific capacitance of first cycle). (d) Cycles from 980 to 999.
Mentions: The CV curves for the electrical characterization of the CNFs grown using the PVP–Pd and the LauMAx-b-AEMAy-Pd solutions are provided in figures 4(a), (b) and 5(a). The specific capacitance (mF cm−2 footprint area) curves measured at difference voltage scan rate are shown in figures 4(c) and 5(b). The cyclability curves for 1000 cycles are shown in figures 4(d) and 5(c) whereas magnified images of the last 20 cycles from 980 to 999 are shown in figures 4(e) and 5(d).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

We describe a fast and cost-effective process for the growth of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) at a temperature compatible with complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology, using highly stable polymer–Pd nanohybrid colloidal solutions of palladium catalyst nanoparticles (NPs). Two polymer–Pd nanohybrids, namely poly(lauryl methacrylate)-block-poly((2-acetoacetoxy)ethyl methacrylate)/Pd (LauMAx-b-AEMAy/Pd) and polyvinylpyrrolidone/Pd were prepared in organic solvents and spin-coated onto silicon substrates. Subsequently, vertically aligned CNFs were grown on these NPs by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition at different temperatures. The electrical properties of the grown CNFs were evaluated using an electrochemical method, commonly used for the characterization of supercapacitors. The results show that the polymer–Pd nanohybrid solutions offer the optimum size range of palladium catalyst NPs enabling the growth of CNFs at temperatures as low as 350 °C. Furthermore, the CNFs grown at such a low temperature are vertically aligned similar to the CNFs grown at 550 °C. Finally the capacitive behavior of these CNFs was similar to that of the CNFs grown at high temperature assuring the same electrical properties thus enabling their usage in different applications such as on-chip capacitors, interconnects, thermal heat sink and energy storage solutions.

No MeSH data available.