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Recent progress on magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: synthesis, surface functional strategies and biomedical applications

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ABSTRACT

This review focuses on the recent development and various strategies in the preparation, microstructure, and magnetic properties of bare and surface functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs); their corresponding biological application was also discussed. In order to implement the practical in vivo or in vitro applications, the IONPs must have combined properties of high magnetic saturation, stability, biocompatibility, and interactive functions at the surface. Moreover, the surface of IONPs could be modified by organic materials or inorganic materials, such as polymers, biomolecules, silica, metals, etc. The new functionalized strategies, problems and major challenges, along with the current directions for the synthesis, surface functionalization and bioapplication of IONPs, are considered. Finally, some future trends and the prospects in these research areas are also discussed.

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Ferrofluids containing IONPs are synthesized and characterized as possible agents for medical treatment and diagnosis. Specifically, novel iron-oxide-based NPs are investigated (i) as contrast agents for MRI, and (ii) for tumor treatment using the technique of magnetic hyperthermia where magnetic NPs are injected in the tumor and heated by applying a strong ac magnetic field. In the left picture the temperature increase of an extracranial tumor, after injecting a small quantity of ferrofluid and irradiating with low frequency radiofrequency waves (150 kHz).
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Figure 23: Ferrofluids containing IONPs are synthesized and characterized as possible agents for medical treatment and diagnosis. Specifically, novel iron-oxide-based NPs are investigated (i) as contrast agents for MRI, and (ii) for tumor treatment using the technique of magnetic hyperthermia where magnetic NPs are injected in the tumor and heated by applying a strong ac magnetic field. In the left picture the temperature increase of an extracranial tumor, after injecting a small quantity of ferrofluid and irradiating with low frequency radiofrequency waves (150 kHz).

Mentions: The use of ferromagnetic NPs for magnetic hyperthermia and thermoablation therapies has attracted considerable attention as one of the promising treatments for cancer [342, 343]. Hyperthermia is the heating of cells in the range of 41–47 °C, which causes the preferential death of tumor cells [344]. When magnetic IONPs are subjected to an alternating magnetic field, heat generation is a result of a combination of internal Néel fluctuations of the particle magnetic moment, hysteresis, and the external Brownian fluctuations that all rely on the magnetic properties of IONPs. However, the temperature of the thermoablation method is often greater than 47 °C, which causes the rapid death of tumor cells due to the high temperature. Thus, some difficulties are faced when heating the tumor part to a sufficiently high temperature while simultaneously maintaining the normal tissues at a lower temperature. Modern techniques generally employ localized hyperthermia for cancer therapy [345]. Many techniques have been developed for the localized heating treatment of cancers, for example, radio-frequency waves (as shown in figure 23 [346]), microwaves and ultrasounds [347–349].


Recent progress on magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: synthesis, surface functional strategies and biomedical applications
Ferrofluids containing IONPs are synthesized and characterized as possible agents for medical treatment and diagnosis. Specifically, novel iron-oxide-based NPs are investigated (i) as contrast agents for MRI, and (ii) for tumor treatment using the technique of magnetic hyperthermia where magnetic NPs are injected in the tumor and heated by applying a strong ac magnetic field. In the left picture the temperature increase of an extracranial tumor, after injecting a small quantity of ferrofluid and irradiating with low frequency radiofrequency waves (150 kHz).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5036481&req=5

Figure 23: Ferrofluids containing IONPs are synthesized and characterized as possible agents for medical treatment and diagnosis. Specifically, novel iron-oxide-based NPs are investigated (i) as contrast agents for MRI, and (ii) for tumor treatment using the technique of magnetic hyperthermia where magnetic NPs are injected in the tumor and heated by applying a strong ac magnetic field. In the left picture the temperature increase of an extracranial tumor, after injecting a small quantity of ferrofluid and irradiating with low frequency radiofrequency waves (150 kHz).
Mentions: The use of ferromagnetic NPs for magnetic hyperthermia and thermoablation therapies has attracted considerable attention as one of the promising treatments for cancer [342, 343]. Hyperthermia is the heating of cells in the range of 41–47 °C, which causes the preferential death of tumor cells [344]. When magnetic IONPs are subjected to an alternating magnetic field, heat generation is a result of a combination of internal Néel fluctuations of the particle magnetic moment, hysteresis, and the external Brownian fluctuations that all rely on the magnetic properties of IONPs. However, the temperature of the thermoablation method is often greater than 47 °C, which causes the rapid death of tumor cells due to the high temperature. Thus, some difficulties are faced when heating the tumor part to a sufficiently high temperature while simultaneously maintaining the normal tissues at a lower temperature. Modern techniques generally employ localized hyperthermia for cancer therapy [345]. Many techniques have been developed for the localized heating treatment of cancers, for example, radio-frequency waves (as shown in figure 23 [346]), microwaves and ultrasounds [347–349].

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

This review focuses on the recent development and various strategies in the preparation, microstructure, and magnetic properties of bare and surface functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs); their corresponding biological application was also discussed. In order to implement the practical in vivo or in vitro applications, the IONPs must have combined properties of high magnetic saturation, stability, biocompatibility, and interactive functions at the surface. Moreover, the surface of IONPs could be modified by organic materials or inorganic materials, such as polymers, biomolecules, silica, metals, etc. The new functionalized strategies, problems and major challenges, along with the current directions for the synthesis, surface functionalization and bioapplication of IONPs, are considered. Finally, some future trends and the prospects in these research areas are also discussed.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus