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Recent progress on magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: synthesis, surface functional strategies and biomedical applications

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

This review focuses on the recent development and various strategies in the preparation, microstructure, and magnetic properties of bare and surface functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs); their corresponding biological application was also discussed. In order to implement the practical in vivo or in vitro applications, the IONPs must have combined properties of high magnetic saturation, stability, biocompatibility, and interactive functions at the surface. Moreover, the surface of IONPs could be modified by organic materials or inorganic materials, such as polymers, biomolecules, silica, metals, etc. The new functionalized strategies, problems and major challenges, along with the current directions for the synthesis, surface functionalization and bioapplication of IONPs, are considered. Finally, some future trends and the prospects in these research areas are also discussed.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Detection of pulmonary metastases in a breast adenocarcinoma mouse model. (a) HP images (TE = 4 ms) from a control mouse, showing normal ventilation patterns. (b) Images from a human breast adenocarcinoma mouse model (TE = 4 ms) after injection of LHRH-SPIONs. A clear signal defect can be seen in the right lobe (yellow circles). All of the HP 3He lung MR images are formatted with 1 mm slice thickness. (Reprinted with permission from R T Branca et al 2010 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci.107 3693.)
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Figure 22: Detection of pulmonary metastases in a breast adenocarcinoma mouse model. (a) HP images (TE = 4 ms) from a control mouse, showing normal ventilation patterns. (b) Images from a human breast adenocarcinoma mouse model (TE = 4 ms) after injection of LHRH-SPIONs. A clear signal defect can be seen in the right lobe (yellow circles). All of the HP 3He lung MR images are formatted with 1 mm slice thickness. (Reprinted with permission from R T Branca et al 2010 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci.107 3693.)

Mentions: In vivo cell tracking or labeling by MRI can provide the observation of biological processes and monitor cell therapy directly, which is another successful application of IONPs in MRI [331–333]. MRI allows for cell tracking with a resolution approaching the size of the cell when the cell loaded enough magnetic IONPs (for increasing the iron concentration). As shown in figure 22, Branca et al used cancer-binding ligand functionalized IONPs to target the cancer cells, then imaged by high-resolution hyperpolarized 3He MRI. In vivo detection of pulmonary micrometastates was demonstrated in mice injected with breast adenocarcinoma cells. This method not only holds promise for cancer imaging but more generally suggests a fundamentally unique approach to molecular imaging and cell tracking in the lungs [334]. Zhang et al investigated the feasibility of imaging green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing cells labeled with IONPs with the fast low-angle positive contrast steady-state free precession (FLAPS) method and to compare them with the traditional negative contrast technique. The GFP cell was incubated for 24 h using 20 μg Fe mL−1 concentration of SPIO and USPIO NPs. The labeled cells were imaged using positive contrast with FLAPS imaging, and FLAPS images were compared with negative contrast T2∗-weighted images. The results demonstrated that SPIO and USPIO labeling of GFP cells had no effect on cell function or GFP expression. Labeled cells were successfully imaged with both positive and negative contrast MRI. The labeled cells were observed as a narrow band of signal enhancement surrounding signal voids in FLAPS images and were visible as signal voids in T2∗-weighted images. Positive contrast and negative contrast imaging were both valuable for visualizing labeled GFP cells [335].


Recent progress on magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: synthesis, surface functional strategies and biomedical applications
Detection of pulmonary metastases in a breast adenocarcinoma mouse model. (a) HP images (TE = 4 ms) from a control mouse, showing normal ventilation patterns. (b) Images from a human breast adenocarcinoma mouse model (TE = 4 ms) after injection of LHRH-SPIONs. A clear signal defect can be seen in the right lobe (yellow circles). All of the HP 3He lung MR images are formatted with 1 mm slice thickness. (Reprinted with permission from R T Branca et al 2010 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci.107 3693.)
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5036481&req=5

Figure 22: Detection of pulmonary metastases in a breast adenocarcinoma mouse model. (a) HP images (TE = 4 ms) from a control mouse, showing normal ventilation patterns. (b) Images from a human breast adenocarcinoma mouse model (TE = 4 ms) after injection of LHRH-SPIONs. A clear signal defect can be seen in the right lobe (yellow circles). All of the HP 3He lung MR images are formatted with 1 mm slice thickness. (Reprinted with permission from R T Branca et al 2010 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci.107 3693.)
Mentions: In vivo cell tracking or labeling by MRI can provide the observation of biological processes and monitor cell therapy directly, which is another successful application of IONPs in MRI [331–333]. MRI allows for cell tracking with a resolution approaching the size of the cell when the cell loaded enough magnetic IONPs (for increasing the iron concentration). As shown in figure 22, Branca et al used cancer-binding ligand functionalized IONPs to target the cancer cells, then imaged by high-resolution hyperpolarized 3He MRI. In vivo detection of pulmonary micrometastates was demonstrated in mice injected with breast adenocarcinoma cells. This method not only holds promise for cancer imaging but more generally suggests a fundamentally unique approach to molecular imaging and cell tracking in the lungs [334]. Zhang et al investigated the feasibility of imaging green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing cells labeled with IONPs with the fast low-angle positive contrast steady-state free precession (FLAPS) method and to compare them with the traditional negative contrast technique. The GFP cell was incubated for 24 h using 20 μg Fe mL−1 concentration of SPIO and USPIO NPs. The labeled cells were imaged using positive contrast with FLAPS imaging, and FLAPS images were compared with negative contrast T2∗-weighted images. The results demonstrated that SPIO and USPIO labeling of GFP cells had no effect on cell function or GFP expression. Labeled cells were successfully imaged with both positive and negative contrast MRI. The labeled cells were observed as a narrow band of signal enhancement surrounding signal voids in FLAPS images and were visible as signal voids in T2∗-weighted images. Positive contrast and negative contrast imaging were both valuable for visualizing labeled GFP cells [335].

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

This review focuses on the recent development and various strategies in the preparation, microstructure, and magnetic properties of bare and surface functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs); their corresponding biological application was also discussed. In order to implement the practical in vivo or in vitro applications, the IONPs must have combined properties of high magnetic saturation, stability, biocompatibility, and interactive functions at the surface. Moreover, the surface of IONPs could be modified by organic materials or inorganic materials, such as polymers, biomolecules, silica, metals, etc. The new functionalized strategies, problems and major challenges, along with the current directions for the synthesis, surface functionalization and bioapplication of IONPs, are considered. Finally, some future trends and the prospects in these research areas are also discussed.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus