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Recent progress on magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: synthesis, surface functional strategies and biomedical applications

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ABSTRACT

This review focuses on the recent development and various strategies in the preparation, microstructure, and magnetic properties of bare and surface functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs); their corresponding biological application was also discussed. In order to implement the practical in vivo or in vitro applications, the IONPs must have combined properties of high magnetic saturation, stability, biocompatibility, and interactive functions at the surface. Moreover, the surface of IONPs could be modified by organic materials or inorganic materials, such as polymers, biomolecules, silica, metals, etc. The new functionalized strategies, problems and major challenges, along with the current directions for the synthesis, surface functionalization and bioapplication of IONPs, are considered. Finally, some future trends and the prospects in these research areas are also discussed.

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Schematic of the preparation of IONP@conjugated polymer (BtPFN) and internalization by cancer cells; confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) images of Bel-7402 cells incubated with MP/BtPFN (green color) for 4 h at 37 °C, whereas cell nuclei are stained by Hoechst 33342 dye (blue color). (a) Bright-field image. (b)–(d) Fluorescence images of the green (b) and blue (c) channels, and a merged image (d). (Reprinted with permission from B Sun et al 2010 Macromolecules43 10348. Copyright 2010 American Chemical Society.)
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Figure 13: Schematic of the preparation of IONP@conjugated polymer (BtPFN) and internalization by cancer cells; confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) images of Bel-7402 cells incubated with MP/BtPFN (green color) for 4 h at 37 °C, whereas cell nuclei are stained by Hoechst 33342 dye (blue color). (a) Bright-field image. (b)–(d) Fluorescence images of the green (b) and blue (c) channels, and a merged image (d). (Reprinted with permission from B Sun et al 2010 Macromolecules43 10348. Copyright 2010 American Chemical Society.)

Mentions: The stability of IONPs can be enhanced and the application field extended by introducing polymers with multiple functional groups. For example, conjugated polymers, which are characterized by a delocalized electronic structure, exhibited efficient coupling between optoelectronic segments, thereby the conjugated polymer functionalized IONPs can be applied in imaging, diagnosis, and therapy [181, 182]. Wang et al used the fluorescent conjugated polyelectrolyte (BtPFN) to coat the surface of magnetic IONPs and form IONP/BtPFN composite NPs with a positively charged fluorescent shell by electrostatic adsorption (as shown in figure 13). The organic/inorganic hybrid NPs display a simultaneous response toward light excitation and external magnetic fields. Furthermore, these nanocomposites can be used as robust fluorescent probes in cell imaging, and if optimized, as multicolor probes to detect interactions of tremendous NPs with living cells. The long-term effects of IONP/BtPFN NPs in cell indicated most MP/BtPFN NPs were clearly in the cytoplasm, whereas a few of them migrated to the region very close to the outer nuclear membranes of the cells [183].


Recent progress on magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: synthesis, surface functional strategies and biomedical applications
Schematic of the preparation of IONP@conjugated polymer (BtPFN) and internalization by cancer cells; confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) images of Bel-7402 cells incubated with MP/BtPFN (green color) for 4 h at 37 °C, whereas cell nuclei are stained by Hoechst 33342 dye (blue color). (a) Bright-field image. (b)–(d) Fluorescence images of the green (b) and blue (c) channels, and a merged image (d). (Reprinted with permission from B Sun et al 2010 Macromolecules43 10348. Copyright 2010 American Chemical Society.)
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5036481&req=5

Figure 13: Schematic of the preparation of IONP@conjugated polymer (BtPFN) and internalization by cancer cells; confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) images of Bel-7402 cells incubated with MP/BtPFN (green color) for 4 h at 37 °C, whereas cell nuclei are stained by Hoechst 33342 dye (blue color). (a) Bright-field image. (b)–(d) Fluorescence images of the green (b) and blue (c) channels, and a merged image (d). (Reprinted with permission from B Sun et al 2010 Macromolecules43 10348. Copyright 2010 American Chemical Society.)
Mentions: The stability of IONPs can be enhanced and the application field extended by introducing polymers with multiple functional groups. For example, conjugated polymers, which are characterized by a delocalized electronic structure, exhibited efficient coupling between optoelectronic segments, thereby the conjugated polymer functionalized IONPs can be applied in imaging, diagnosis, and therapy [181, 182]. Wang et al used the fluorescent conjugated polyelectrolyte (BtPFN) to coat the surface of magnetic IONPs and form IONP/BtPFN composite NPs with a positively charged fluorescent shell by electrostatic adsorption (as shown in figure 13). The organic/inorganic hybrid NPs display a simultaneous response toward light excitation and external magnetic fields. Furthermore, these nanocomposites can be used as robust fluorescent probes in cell imaging, and if optimized, as multicolor probes to detect interactions of tremendous NPs with living cells. The long-term effects of IONP/BtPFN NPs in cell indicated most MP/BtPFN NPs were clearly in the cytoplasm, whereas a few of them migrated to the region very close to the outer nuclear membranes of the cells [183].

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

This review focuses on the recent development and various strategies in the preparation, microstructure, and magnetic properties of bare and surface functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs); their corresponding biological application was also discussed. In order to implement the practical in vivo or in vitro applications, the IONPs must have combined properties of high magnetic saturation, stability, biocompatibility, and interactive functions at the surface. Moreover, the surface of IONPs could be modified by organic materials or inorganic materials, such as polymers, biomolecules, silica, metals, etc. The new functionalized strategies, problems and major challenges, along with the current directions for the synthesis, surface functionalization and bioapplication of IONPs, are considered. Finally, some future trends and the prospects in these research areas are also discussed.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus