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Recent progress on magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: synthesis, surface functional strategies and biomedical applications

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ABSTRACT

This review focuses on the recent development and various strategies in the preparation, microstructure, and magnetic properties of bare and surface functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs); their corresponding biological application was also discussed. In order to implement the practical in vivo or in vitro applications, the IONPs must have combined properties of high magnetic saturation, stability, biocompatibility, and interactive functions at the surface. Moreover, the surface of IONPs could be modified by organic materials or inorganic materials, such as polymers, biomolecules, silica, metals, etc. The new functionalized strategies, problems and major challenges, along with the current directions for the synthesis, surface functionalization and bioapplication of IONPs, are considered. Finally, some future trends and the prospects in these research areas are also discussed.

No MeSH data available.


Crystal structure and crystallographic data of the hematite, magnetite and maghemite (the black ball is Fe2+, the green ball is Fe3+ and the red ball is O2−).
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Figure 1: Crystal structure and crystallographic data of the hematite, magnetite and maghemite (the black ball is Fe2+, the green ball is Fe3+ and the red ball is O2−).

Mentions: As the most stable iron oxide and n-type semiconductor under ambient conditions, hematite (α-Fe2O3) is widely used in catalysts, pigments and gas sensors due to its low cost and high resistance to corrosion. It can also be used as a starting material for the synthesis of magnetite (Fe3O4) and maghemite (γ-Fe2O3), which have been intensively pursued for both fundamental scientific interests and technological applications in the last few decades [10]. Hematite is an n-type semiconductor with a band gap of 2.3 eV, where the conduction band (CB) is composed of empty d-orbitals of Fe3+ and the valence band (VB) consists of occupied 3d crystal field orbitals of Fe3+ with some admixture from the O 2p non-bonding orbitals [11]. As shown in figure 1(a), Fe3+ ions occupy two-thirds of the octahedral sites that are confined by the nearly ideal hexagonal close-packed O lattice.


Recent progress on magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: synthesis, surface functional strategies and biomedical applications
Crystal structure and crystallographic data of the hematite, magnetite and maghemite (the black ball is Fe2+, the green ball is Fe3+ and the red ball is O2−).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5036481&req=5

Figure 1: Crystal structure and crystallographic data of the hematite, magnetite and maghemite (the black ball is Fe2+, the green ball is Fe3+ and the red ball is O2−).
Mentions: As the most stable iron oxide and n-type semiconductor under ambient conditions, hematite (α-Fe2O3) is widely used in catalysts, pigments and gas sensors due to its low cost and high resistance to corrosion. It can also be used as a starting material for the synthesis of magnetite (Fe3O4) and maghemite (γ-Fe2O3), which have been intensively pursued for both fundamental scientific interests and technological applications in the last few decades [10]. Hematite is an n-type semiconductor with a band gap of 2.3 eV, where the conduction band (CB) is composed of empty d-orbitals of Fe3+ and the valence band (VB) consists of occupied 3d crystal field orbitals of Fe3+ with some admixture from the O 2p non-bonding orbitals [11]. As shown in figure 1(a), Fe3+ ions occupy two-thirds of the octahedral sites that are confined by the nearly ideal hexagonal close-packed O lattice.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

This review focuses on the recent development and various strategies in the preparation, microstructure, and magnetic properties of bare and surface functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs); their corresponding biological application was also discussed. In order to implement the practical in vivo or in vitro applications, the IONPs must have combined properties of high magnetic saturation, stability, biocompatibility, and interactive functions at the surface. Moreover, the surface of IONPs could be modified by organic materials or inorganic materials, such as polymers, biomolecules, silica, metals, etc. The new functionalized strategies, problems and major challenges, along with the current directions for the synthesis, surface functionalization and bioapplication of IONPs, are considered. Finally, some future trends and the prospects in these research areas are also discussed.

No MeSH data available.