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Planar silver nanowire, carbon nanotube and PEDOT:PSS nanocomposite transparent electrodes

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ABSTRACT

Highly conductive, transparent and flexible planar electrodes were fabricated using interwoven silver nanowires and single-walled carbon nanotubes (AgNW:SWCNT) in a PEDOT:PSS matrix via an epoxy transfer method from a silicon template. The planar electrodes achieved a sheet resistance of 6.6 ± 0.0 Ω/□ and an average transmission of 86% between 400 and 800 nm. A high figure of merit of 367 Ω−1 is reported for the electrodes, which is much higher than that measured for indium tin oxide and reported for other AgNW composites. The AgNW:SWCNT:PEDOT:PSS electrode was used to fabricate low temperature (annealing free) devices demonstrating their potential to function with a range of organic semiconducting polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction blend systems.

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SEM images of (a) non-planarized AgNW and SWCNTs on a glass substrate and (d) the AgNWs:SWCNT:PEDOT:PSS electrode after the planarization. AFM of (b) non-planarized AgNW and SWCNTs on glass and (e) AgNWs and SWCNTs after the planarization process. The height profiles along the dotted lines in (b) and (e) are shown in (c) and (f), respectively. All scale bars are 2 μm.
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Figure 4: SEM images of (a) non-planarized AgNW and SWCNTs on a glass substrate and (d) the AgNWs:SWCNT:PEDOT:PSS electrode after the planarization. AFM of (b) non-planarized AgNW and SWCNTs on glass and (e) AgNWs and SWCNTs after the planarization process. The height profiles along the dotted lines in (b) and (e) are shown in (c) and (f), respectively. All scale bars are 2 μm.

Mentions: SEM (figures 4(a) and (d)) and AFM (figures 4(b) and (e)) images reveal that before planarization (figure 4(a)), the AgNW:SWCNT electrodes have a complex surface topography and exists as interwoven networks of AgNWs and SWCNTs. The reason for the close association between the AgNWs and the SWCNTs has been observed previously and has been determined to be due to a solution phase, interaction between the AgNWs and the side walls of the SWCNTs prior to deposition onto the cellulose ester membranes [22]. After completion of the planarization process however, the SEM reveals a significantly smoother surface and all of the AgNWs and SWCNTs are embedded into the PEDOT:PSS and epoxy supporting layer (figure 4(d)). The change in surface morphology upon planarization was also monitored via tapping mode AFM and the images are shown in figure 4(b) for the unplanarized and (e) for the planarized electrodes. Figures 4(c) and (f) are the height profiles along the dotted lines in the AFM images of figures 4(b) and (e). Figure 4(e) shows the surface morphology of the planarized AgNW:SWCNT:PEDOT:PSS electrode surface; the height profile is significantly smoother than for a non-planarized AgNW:SWCNT electrode (figure 4(c)) despite the fact that the height profile is positioned over the crossing point of two AgNWs. The roughness (Rq) of the planarized AgNW:SWCNT:PEDOT:PSS electrode over a plane-fitted image scan of 10 μm2 was measured to be 3.5 nm. Interestingly, we can still observe what are presumably SWCNTs in the top right hand quadrant of figure 4(d) (indicated by the arrow). Since the SWCNTs were observed to be present at the top interface we believe they also participate in charge collection, passing extracted charges to the more conductive AgNWs.


Planar silver nanowire, carbon nanotube and PEDOT:PSS nanocomposite transparent electrodes
SEM images of (a) non-planarized AgNW and SWCNTs on a glass substrate and (d) the AgNWs:SWCNT:PEDOT:PSS electrode after the planarization. AFM of (b) non-planarized AgNW and SWCNTs on glass and (e) AgNWs and SWCNTs after the planarization process. The height profiles along the dotted lines in (b) and (e) are shown in (c) and (f), respectively. All scale bars are 2 μm.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5036479&req=5

Figure 4: SEM images of (a) non-planarized AgNW and SWCNTs on a glass substrate and (d) the AgNWs:SWCNT:PEDOT:PSS electrode after the planarization. AFM of (b) non-planarized AgNW and SWCNTs on glass and (e) AgNWs and SWCNTs after the planarization process. The height profiles along the dotted lines in (b) and (e) are shown in (c) and (f), respectively. All scale bars are 2 μm.
Mentions: SEM (figures 4(a) and (d)) and AFM (figures 4(b) and (e)) images reveal that before planarization (figure 4(a)), the AgNW:SWCNT electrodes have a complex surface topography and exists as interwoven networks of AgNWs and SWCNTs. The reason for the close association between the AgNWs and the SWCNTs has been observed previously and has been determined to be due to a solution phase, interaction between the AgNWs and the side walls of the SWCNTs prior to deposition onto the cellulose ester membranes [22]. After completion of the planarization process however, the SEM reveals a significantly smoother surface and all of the AgNWs and SWCNTs are embedded into the PEDOT:PSS and epoxy supporting layer (figure 4(d)). The change in surface morphology upon planarization was also monitored via tapping mode AFM and the images are shown in figure 4(b) for the unplanarized and (e) for the planarized electrodes. Figures 4(c) and (f) are the height profiles along the dotted lines in the AFM images of figures 4(b) and (e). Figure 4(e) shows the surface morphology of the planarized AgNW:SWCNT:PEDOT:PSS electrode surface; the height profile is significantly smoother than for a non-planarized AgNW:SWCNT electrode (figure 4(c)) despite the fact that the height profile is positioned over the crossing point of two AgNWs. The roughness (Rq) of the planarized AgNW:SWCNT:PEDOT:PSS electrode over a plane-fitted image scan of 10 μm2 was measured to be 3.5 nm. Interestingly, we can still observe what are presumably SWCNTs in the top right hand quadrant of figure 4(d) (indicated by the arrow). Since the SWCNTs were observed to be present at the top interface we believe they also participate in charge collection, passing extracted charges to the more conductive AgNWs.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Highly conductive, transparent and flexible planar electrodes were fabricated using interwoven silver nanowires and single-walled carbon nanotubes (AgNW:SWCNT) in a PEDOT:PSS matrix via an epoxy transfer method from a silicon template. The planar electrodes achieved a sheet resistance of 6.6 ± 0.0 Ω/□ and an average transmission of 86% between 400 and 800 nm. A high figure of merit of 367 Ω−1 is reported for the electrodes, which is much higher than that measured for indium tin oxide and reported for other AgNW composites. The AgNW:SWCNT:PEDOT:PSS electrode was used to fabricate low temperature (annealing free) devices demonstrating their potential to function with a range of organic semiconducting polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction blend systems.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus