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Planar silver nanowire, carbon nanotube and PEDOT:PSS nanocomposite transparent electrodes

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ABSTRACT

Highly conductive, transparent and flexible planar electrodes were fabricated using interwoven silver nanowires and single-walled carbon nanotubes (AgNW:SWCNT) in a PEDOT:PSS matrix via an epoxy transfer method from a silicon template. The planar electrodes achieved a sheet resistance of 6.6 ± 0.0 Ω/□ and an average transmission of 86% between 400 and 800 nm. A high figure of merit of 367 Ω−1 is reported for the electrodes, which is much higher than that measured for indium tin oxide and reported for other AgNW composites. The AgNW:SWCNT:PEDOT:PSS electrode was used to fabricate low temperature (annealing free) devices demonstrating their potential to function with a range of organic semiconducting polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction blend systems.

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Schematic outlining the fabrication of planar AgNW:SWCNT:PEDOT:PSS nanocomposite electrodes on a glass substrate. (a) Substrate patterning through cellulose ester membrane, (b) transfer to silicon substrate, (c) spin-coating of PEDOT:PSS solution, (d) creation of epoxy sandwich structure, (e) curing the epoxy, (f) liquid nitrogen separation of electrode from silicon template. DI stands for deionized and PEN represents polyethylene naphthalate.
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Figure 2: Schematic outlining the fabrication of planar AgNW:SWCNT:PEDOT:PSS nanocomposite electrodes on a glass substrate. (a) Substrate patterning through cellulose ester membrane, (b) transfer to silicon substrate, (c) spin-coating of PEDOT:PSS solution, (d) creation of epoxy sandwich structure, (e) curing the epoxy, (f) liquid nitrogen separation of electrode from silicon template. DI stands for deionized and PEN represents polyethylene naphthalate.

Mentions: Interwoven networks were prepared via vacuum filtration through mixed cellulose ester membranes (MF-Millipore Membrane, USA, mixed cellulose esters, hydrophilic, 0.45 μm, 47 mm). Various volumes of pre-prepared AgNW (0.1 mg mL−1) and SWCNT (0.25 mg mL−1) solutions were added to 300 mL of deionized water so that approximately a surface loading of 125 mg m−2 of AgNWs was achieved in the final nanocomposite electrode. Patterned electrodes were formed by placing a smaller pore size mixed cellulose ester template (MF-Millipore Membrane, mixed cellulose esters, hydrophilic, 0.025 μm, 47 mm) under the 0.45 μm membrane during filtration (figure 2(a)). The 0.025 μm patterning template had the required electrode pattern cut from the middle of the membrane. After filtration the patterned electrodes were then placed on pre-cleaned silicon substrates (sonicated in acetone and then 2-propanol for 15 min each). The silicon and patterned electrodes were then heated at 80 °C under 0.16 kg cm−2 of pressure in a vacuum oven (Memmert, Germany) for 30 min (figure 2(b)). The mixed cellulose ester filter paper was subsequently removed by dissolution in acetone for 60 min leaving behind the patterned AgNW:SWCNT nanocomposite on the silicon substrate (figure 2(c)). Subsequently, a PEDOT:PSS solution (Clevios™, approximately 1% aqueous suspension) mixed with 33 v/v% 2-propanol and 10 v/v% sorbitol (200 μL) was spin-coated on top of the AgNW:SWCNT nanocomposite at 500 rpm for 5 s then at 3000 rpm for 30 s. The nanocomposite was then annealed at 140 °C for 10 min (figure 2(d)). Epotek 301 epoxy resin (50 μL, T = 99%) was then placed on top of the PEDOT:PSS coated AgNW:SWCNT electrode. A glass substrate for transfer was placed on top of the epoxy to create an AgNW:SWCNT:PEDOT:PSS/epoxy/glass stack. The stack was then heated at 65 °C for 1 h in an oven (Memmert, Germany) to cure the epoxy. The stack was then put into liquid nitrogen in order to cleave the silicon/PEDOT:PSS interface, which occurs due to thermal stress, and this process results in a planar conducting surface on the glass substrate.


Planar silver nanowire, carbon nanotube and PEDOT:PSS nanocomposite transparent electrodes
Schematic outlining the fabrication of planar AgNW:SWCNT:PEDOT:PSS nanocomposite electrodes on a glass substrate. (a) Substrate patterning through cellulose ester membrane, (b) transfer to silicon substrate, (c) spin-coating of PEDOT:PSS solution, (d) creation of epoxy sandwich structure, (e) curing the epoxy, (f) liquid nitrogen separation of electrode from silicon template. DI stands for deionized and PEN represents polyethylene naphthalate.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5036479&req=5

Figure 2: Schematic outlining the fabrication of planar AgNW:SWCNT:PEDOT:PSS nanocomposite electrodes on a glass substrate. (a) Substrate patterning through cellulose ester membrane, (b) transfer to silicon substrate, (c) spin-coating of PEDOT:PSS solution, (d) creation of epoxy sandwich structure, (e) curing the epoxy, (f) liquid nitrogen separation of electrode from silicon template. DI stands for deionized and PEN represents polyethylene naphthalate.
Mentions: Interwoven networks were prepared via vacuum filtration through mixed cellulose ester membranes (MF-Millipore Membrane, USA, mixed cellulose esters, hydrophilic, 0.45 μm, 47 mm). Various volumes of pre-prepared AgNW (0.1 mg mL−1) and SWCNT (0.25 mg mL−1) solutions were added to 300 mL of deionized water so that approximately a surface loading of 125 mg m−2 of AgNWs was achieved in the final nanocomposite electrode. Patterned electrodes were formed by placing a smaller pore size mixed cellulose ester template (MF-Millipore Membrane, mixed cellulose esters, hydrophilic, 0.025 μm, 47 mm) under the 0.45 μm membrane during filtration (figure 2(a)). The 0.025 μm patterning template had the required electrode pattern cut from the middle of the membrane. After filtration the patterned electrodes were then placed on pre-cleaned silicon substrates (sonicated in acetone and then 2-propanol for 15 min each). The silicon and patterned electrodes were then heated at 80 °C under 0.16 kg cm−2 of pressure in a vacuum oven (Memmert, Germany) for 30 min (figure 2(b)). The mixed cellulose ester filter paper was subsequently removed by dissolution in acetone for 60 min leaving behind the patterned AgNW:SWCNT nanocomposite on the silicon substrate (figure 2(c)). Subsequently, a PEDOT:PSS solution (Clevios™, approximately 1% aqueous suspension) mixed with 33 v/v% 2-propanol and 10 v/v% sorbitol (200 μL) was spin-coated on top of the AgNW:SWCNT nanocomposite at 500 rpm for 5 s then at 3000 rpm for 30 s. The nanocomposite was then annealed at 140 °C for 10 min (figure 2(d)). Epotek 301 epoxy resin (50 μL, T = 99%) was then placed on top of the PEDOT:PSS coated AgNW:SWCNT electrode. A glass substrate for transfer was placed on top of the epoxy to create an AgNW:SWCNT:PEDOT:PSS/epoxy/glass stack. The stack was then heated at 65 °C for 1 h in an oven (Memmert, Germany) to cure the epoxy. The stack was then put into liquid nitrogen in order to cleave the silicon/PEDOT:PSS interface, which occurs due to thermal stress, and this process results in a planar conducting surface on the glass substrate.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Highly conductive, transparent and flexible planar electrodes were fabricated using interwoven silver nanowires and single-walled carbon nanotubes (AgNW:SWCNT) in a PEDOT:PSS matrix via an epoxy transfer method from a silicon template. The planar electrodes achieved a sheet resistance of 6.6 ± 0.0 Ω/□ and an average transmission of 86% between 400 and 800 nm. A high figure of merit of 367 Ω−1 is reported for the electrodes, which is much higher than that measured for indium tin oxide and reported for other AgNW composites. The AgNW:SWCNT:PEDOT:PSS electrode was used to fabricate low temperature (annealing free) devices demonstrating their potential to function with a range of organic semiconducting polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction blend systems.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus