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Planar silver nanowire, carbon nanotube and PEDOT:PSS nanocomposite transparent electrodes

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ABSTRACT

Highly conductive, transparent and flexible planar electrodes were fabricated using interwoven silver nanowires and single-walled carbon nanotubes (AgNW:SWCNT) in a PEDOT:PSS matrix via an epoxy transfer method from a silicon template. The planar electrodes achieved a sheet resistance of 6.6 ± 0.0 Ω/□ and an average transmission of 86% between 400 and 800 nm. A high figure of merit of 367 Ω−1 is reported for the electrodes, which is much higher than that measured for indium tin oxide and reported for other AgNW composites. The AgNW:SWCNT:PEDOT:PSS electrode was used to fabricate low temperature (annealing free) devices demonstrating their potential to function with a range of organic semiconducting polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction blend systems.

No MeSH data available.


PF-TUNA experimental setup.
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Figure 1: PF-TUNA experimental setup.

Mentions: Sheet resistance measurements were performed using a four point probe (KeithLink® Technology, New Taipei City, Taiwan). The values reported were an average of 10 measurements on two separate 64 mm2 samples. Transmission and reflectivity were measured on samples (25 mm2) using a Perkin–Elmer LAMBDA 950 UV/vis/NIR spectrophotometer with integrating sphere. The average transmission reported was for a wavelength range between 400 and 800 nm. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images were acquired using a CamScan MX2500 microscope (CamScan Optics, Cambridge, UK) working at an accelerating voltage of 10 kV and a distance of 10 mm. Topographical atomic force microscopy (AFM) images were acquired using a Bruker Multimode AFM with Nanoscope V controller. NSC15 Mikromasch silicon tapping mode probes with a nominal spring constant of 40 N m−1, resonant frequency of 325 kHz and tip diameter equal to 20 nm were used. AFM images were acquired in tapping mode with all parameters including set-point, scan rate and feedback gains adjusted to optimize image quality and minimize imaging force. Root mean square roughness (Rrms) values were obtained from plane-fitted image scans of 10 μm2. The electrical conductivity of the planar AgNW:SWCNT electrodes were mapped using peak force tunnelling AFM (PF-TUNA) [29] on a Bruker Multimode AFM with Nanoscope V controller. The software used to acquire all AFM data was control software version 8.15. The cantilevers used to obtain the PF-TUNA images were Bruker SCM-PIT conducting probes with a spring constant of 1–5 N m−1. The entire cantilever and tip was coated with 20 nm of platinum and iridium resulting in a total tip diameter of approximately 40 nm. The sample surface was electrically connected via copper tape and the instrumental setup shown in figure 1. PF-TUNA imaging parameters including set-point, scan rate, feedback gains, current sensitivity and applied bias were adjusted to optimize height and current image quality. The scanner was calibrated in x, y and z directions using silicon calibration grids (Bruker model numbers PG: 1 μm pitch, 110 nm depth and VGRP: 10 μm pitch, 180 nm depth).


Planar silver nanowire, carbon nanotube and PEDOT:PSS nanocomposite transparent electrodes
PF-TUNA experimental setup.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5036479&req=5

Figure 1: PF-TUNA experimental setup.
Mentions: Sheet resistance measurements were performed using a four point probe (KeithLink® Technology, New Taipei City, Taiwan). The values reported were an average of 10 measurements on two separate 64 mm2 samples. Transmission and reflectivity were measured on samples (25 mm2) using a Perkin–Elmer LAMBDA 950 UV/vis/NIR spectrophotometer with integrating sphere. The average transmission reported was for a wavelength range between 400 and 800 nm. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images were acquired using a CamScan MX2500 microscope (CamScan Optics, Cambridge, UK) working at an accelerating voltage of 10 kV and a distance of 10 mm. Topographical atomic force microscopy (AFM) images were acquired using a Bruker Multimode AFM with Nanoscope V controller. NSC15 Mikromasch silicon tapping mode probes with a nominal spring constant of 40 N m−1, resonant frequency of 325 kHz and tip diameter equal to 20 nm were used. AFM images were acquired in tapping mode with all parameters including set-point, scan rate and feedback gains adjusted to optimize image quality and minimize imaging force. Root mean square roughness (Rrms) values were obtained from plane-fitted image scans of 10 μm2. The electrical conductivity of the planar AgNW:SWCNT electrodes were mapped using peak force tunnelling AFM (PF-TUNA) [29] on a Bruker Multimode AFM with Nanoscope V controller. The software used to acquire all AFM data was control software version 8.15. The cantilevers used to obtain the PF-TUNA images were Bruker SCM-PIT conducting probes with a spring constant of 1–5 N m−1. The entire cantilever and tip was coated with 20 nm of platinum and iridium resulting in a total tip diameter of approximately 40 nm. The sample surface was electrically connected via copper tape and the instrumental setup shown in figure 1. PF-TUNA imaging parameters including set-point, scan rate, feedback gains, current sensitivity and applied bias were adjusted to optimize height and current image quality. The scanner was calibrated in x, y and z directions using silicon calibration grids (Bruker model numbers PG: 1 μm pitch, 110 nm depth and VGRP: 10 μm pitch, 180 nm depth).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Highly conductive, transparent and flexible planar electrodes were fabricated using interwoven silver nanowires and single-walled carbon nanotubes (AgNW:SWCNT) in a PEDOT:PSS matrix via an epoxy transfer method from a silicon template. The planar electrodes achieved a sheet resistance of 6.6 ± 0.0 Ω/□ and an average transmission of 86% between 400 and 800 nm. A high figure of merit of 367 Ω−1 is reported for the electrodes, which is much higher than that measured for indium tin oxide and reported for other AgNW composites. The AgNW:SWCNT:PEDOT:PSS electrode was used to fabricate low temperature (annealing free) devices demonstrating their potential to function with a range of organic semiconducting polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction blend systems.

No MeSH data available.