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Non-covalent polymer wrapping of carbon nanotubes and the role of wrapped polymers as functional dispersants

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ABSTRACT

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been recognized as a promising material in a wide range of applications from biotechnology to energy-related devices. However, the poor solubility in aqueous and organic solvents hindered the applications of CNTs. As studies have progressed, the methodology for CNT dispersion was established. In this methodology, the key issue is to covalently or non-covalently functionalize the surfaces of the CNTs with a dispersant. Among the various types of dispersions, polymer wrapping through non-covalent interactions is attractive in terms of the stability and homogeneity of the functionalization. Recently, by taking advantage of their stability, the wrapped-polymers have been utilized to support and/or reinforce the unique functionality of the CNTs, leading to the development of high-performance devices. In this review, various polymer wrapping approaches, together with the applications of the polymer-wrapped CNTs, are summarized.

No MeSH data available.


Chemical structure of PmPV.
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Figure 5: Chemical structure of PmPV.

Mentions: It is reasonable to use π-conjugated polymers for the wrapping of the π-conjugated surfaces of the CNTs in which effective interactions, such as π−π and/or CH−π, are expected. Pioneering studies of dispersing CNTs by a π-conjugated polymer into solvents were carried out using poly(p-phenylenevinylene) derivatives (PPVs) as the polymer dispersant [63–65]. The CNTs formed a stable dispersion in the organic solution of PPVs, suggesting the formation of the polymer-wrapped CNTs. In addition to the dispersion of CNTs [66–82], the PPV wrapping was also utilized for the extraction of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with specific chiral indices. Keogh et al and Coleman et al used the poly(m-phenylene-co-2,5-dioctoxy-p-phenylenevinylene) (PmPV, figure 5) to preferentially disperse SWCNTs with specific chiral indices, leaving the others in the precipitate [83–86]. Although a detailed mechanism of the selective dispersion is still unknown, it is assumed that the π-conjugated polymers with a rigid backbone exhibit the selectivity for the specific chiral indices by aligning their backbones along the SWCNTs’ surfaces with a preferential angle in order to maximize the interaction on the π-surface [87]. Selective extraction of semiconducting SWCNTs (s-SWCNTs) by π-conjugated polyfluorene (PFO) and their derivatives has been reported by Nish et al in which poly(9,9-dioctylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl) (PFO) and poly[(9,9-dioctylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-alt-co-(1,4-benzo-2,1,3-thiadiazole)] (PFO-BT or P8BT) (figure 6) were used [88].


Non-covalent polymer wrapping of carbon nanotubes and the role of wrapped polymers as functional dispersants
Chemical structure of PmPV.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5036478&req=5

Figure 5: Chemical structure of PmPV.
Mentions: It is reasonable to use π-conjugated polymers for the wrapping of the π-conjugated surfaces of the CNTs in which effective interactions, such as π−π and/or CH−π, are expected. Pioneering studies of dispersing CNTs by a π-conjugated polymer into solvents were carried out using poly(p-phenylenevinylene) derivatives (PPVs) as the polymer dispersant [63–65]. The CNTs formed a stable dispersion in the organic solution of PPVs, suggesting the formation of the polymer-wrapped CNTs. In addition to the dispersion of CNTs [66–82], the PPV wrapping was also utilized for the extraction of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with specific chiral indices. Keogh et al and Coleman et al used the poly(m-phenylene-co-2,5-dioctoxy-p-phenylenevinylene) (PmPV, figure 5) to preferentially disperse SWCNTs with specific chiral indices, leaving the others in the precipitate [83–86]. Although a detailed mechanism of the selective dispersion is still unknown, it is assumed that the π-conjugated polymers with a rigid backbone exhibit the selectivity for the specific chiral indices by aligning their backbones along the SWCNTs’ surfaces with a preferential angle in order to maximize the interaction on the π-surface [87]. Selective extraction of semiconducting SWCNTs (s-SWCNTs) by π-conjugated polyfluorene (PFO) and their derivatives has been reported by Nish et al in which poly(9,9-dioctylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl) (PFO) and poly[(9,9-dioctylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-alt-co-(1,4-benzo-2,1,3-thiadiazole)] (PFO-BT or P8BT) (figure 6) were used [88].

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been recognized as a promising material in a wide range of applications from biotechnology to energy-related devices. However, the poor solubility in aqueous and organic solvents hindered the applications of CNTs. As studies have progressed, the methodology for CNT dispersion was established. In this methodology, the key issue is to covalently or non-covalently functionalize the surfaces of the CNTs with a dispersant. Among the various types of dispersions, polymer wrapping through non-covalent interactions is attractive in terms of the stability and homogeneity of the functionalization. Recently, by taking advantage of their stability, the wrapped-polymers have been utilized to support and/or reinforce the unique functionality of the CNTs, leading to the development of high-performance devices. In this review, various polymer wrapping approaches, together with the applications of the polymer-wrapped CNTs, are summarized.

No MeSH data available.