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Effect of Fine Particulate Matter (PM 2.5 ) on Rat Placenta Pathology and Perinatal Outcomes

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background: Fine particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) has been reported to cause adverse effects on human health. Evidence has shown the association between PM2.5 exposure and adverse perinatal outcomes, and the most common method is epidemiological investigation. We wished to investigate the impact of PM2.5 on placenta and prenatal outcomes and its related mechanisms in a rat model.

Material/methods: Pregnant rats were exposed to a low PM2.5 dose (15 mg/kg) with intratracheal instillation at pregnant day 10 and day 18, while the controls received an equivalent volume normal saline. All rats received cesarean section 24 h after the last intratracheal instillation and were sacrificed with anesthesia. Blood routine tests (BRT) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were detected for analyzing inflammation and blood coagulation. Placenta tissue sections underwent pathologic examination, and the levels of homogenate glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA) were determined for oxidative stress estimation.

Results: Increased absorbed blastocysts, and lower maternal weight gain and fetal weight were found in the PM2.5 exposure group compared to controls (p<0.05). Exposure to PM2.5 caused a significant increase of blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), platelets, and IL-6 levels (P<0.01). There were no differences in GSH-Px and MDA of placenta homogenate between the 2 groups (P>0.05). Placenta pathological examination demonstrated thrombus and chorioamnionitis in the PM2.5 exposure group.

Conclusions: PM2.5 exposure can result in placental pathological changes and adverse perinatal outcomes. The placental inflammation and hypercoagulability with vascular thrombosis may play important roles in placental impairment, but oxidative stress appears to be less important.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Systemic inflammation, blood platelet count, and placenta oxidative stress with exposure to PM2.5. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) (A), platelet (B), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) (C) were higher in the test group compared to the control group (* p<0.01), but red blood cell count (D) was not. The glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) (E) and malondialdehyde (MDA) (F) of placenta homogenate were not significantly different between the 2 groups.
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f1-medscimonit-22-3274: Systemic inflammation, blood platelet count, and placenta oxidative stress with exposure to PM2.5. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) (A), platelet (B), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) (C) were higher in the test group compared to the control group (* p<0.01), but red blood cell count (D) was not. The glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) (E) and malondialdehyde (MDA) (F) of placenta homogenate were not significantly different between the 2 groups.

Mentions: The various blood biochemical parameters are presented in Figure 1. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), platelets, and IL-6 were increased in the PM2.5 group compared to the control group (P<0.01). There was no significant difference in red blood cells (RBC) count between the 2 groups.


Effect of Fine Particulate Matter (PM 2.5 ) on Rat Placenta Pathology and Perinatal Outcomes
Systemic inflammation, blood platelet count, and placenta oxidative stress with exposure to PM2.5. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) (A), platelet (B), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) (C) were higher in the test group compared to the control group (* p<0.01), but red blood cell count (D) was not. The glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) (E) and malondialdehyde (MDA) (F) of placenta homogenate were not significantly different between the 2 groups.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5036383&req=5

f1-medscimonit-22-3274: Systemic inflammation, blood platelet count, and placenta oxidative stress with exposure to PM2.5. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) (A), platelet (B), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) (C) were higher in the test group compared to the control group (* p<0.01), but red blood cell count (D) was not. The glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) (E) and malondialdehyde (MDA) (F) of placenta homogenate were not significantly different between the 2 groups.
Mentions: The various blood biochemical parameters are presented in Figure 1. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), platelets, and IL-6 were increased in the PM2.5 group compared to the control group (P<0.01). There was no significant difference in red blood cells (RBC) count between the 2 groups.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background: Fine particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters smaller than 2.5 &mu;m (PM2.5) has been reported to cause adverse effects on human health. Evidence has shown the association between PM2.5 exposure and adverse perinatal outcomes, and the most common method is epidemiological investigation. We wished to investigate the impact of PM2.5 on placenta and prenatal outcomes and its related mechanisms in a rat model.

Material/methods: Pregnant rats were exposed to a low PM2.5 dose (15 mg/kg) with intratracheal instillation at pregnant day 10 and day 18, while the controls received an equivalent volume normal saline. All rats received cesarean section 24 h after the last intratracheal instillation and were sacrificed with anesthesia. Blood routine tests (BRT) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were detected for analyzing inflammation and blood coagulation. Placenta tissue sections underwent pathologic examination, and the levels of homogenate glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA) were determined for oxidative stress estimation.

Results: Increased absorbed blastocysts, and lower maternal weight gain and fetal weight were found in the PM2.5 exposure group compared to controls (p&lt;0.05). Exposure to PM2.5 caused a significant increase of blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), platelets, and IL-6 levels (P&lt;0.01). There were no differences in GSH-Px and MDA of placenta homogenate between the 2 groups (P&gt;0.05). Placenta pathological examination demonstrated thrombus and chorioamnionitis in the PM2.5 exposure group.

Conclusions: PM2.5 exposure can result in placental pathological changes and adverse perinatal outcomes. The placental inflammation and hypercoagulability with vascular thrombosis may play important roles in placental impairment, but oxidative stress appears to be less important.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus