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Dissipation induced by phonon elastic scattering in crystals

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

We demonstrate that the phonon elastic scattering leads to a dominant dissipation in crystals at low temperature. The two-level systems (TLSs) should be responsible for the elastic scattering, whereas the dissipation induced by static-point defects (SPDs) can not be neglected. One purpose of this work is to show how the energy splitting distribution of the TLS ensemble affects the dissipation. Besides, this article displays the proportion of phonon-TLS elastic scattering to total phonon dissipation. The coupling coefficient of phonon-SPD scattering and the constant P0 of the TLS distribution are important that we estimate their magnitudes in this paper. Our results is useful to understand the phonon dissipation mechanism, and give some clues to improve the performance of mechanical resonators, apply the desired defects, or reveal the atom configuration in lattice structure of disordered crystals.

No MeSH data available.


The relative contribution from phonon-TLS scattering, RTLS, for various ranges of transition frequency ν of TLS ensemble.(a,b) Depict the situation for νi = 3 GHz and 10 GHz, respectively. In each figure, the lines from upper to lower indicate the various trends at T = 0.01, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5 and 1 K, respectively. In particular, the lines for T = 0.01 and 0.1 K nearly overlap each other in panel (b).
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f4: The relative contribution from phonon-TLS scattering, RTLS, for various ranges of transition frequency ν of TLS ensemble.(a,b) Depict the situation for νi = 3 GHz and 10 GHz, respectively. In each figure, the lines from upper to lower indicate the various trends at T = 0.01, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5 and 1 K, respectively. In particular, the lines for T = 0.01 and 0.1 K nearly overlap each other in panel (b).

Mentions: As illustrated in Fig. 4, its panels (a) and (b) depict the situation for fixing νi = 3 GHz and 10 GHz, respectively. Whether the TLS ensemble lies in low- or high-transition frequency region, the relative contribution RTLS is higher at lower temperature. Especially at dozens of milli-kelvin, the phonon-TLS elastic scattering is the dominative dissipation mechanism. Just because of the different ratios at various temperature, the experiment in ref. 8 displays the temperature dependence of elastic scattering rate which results from phonon-TLS scattering. Additionally, all lines at different temperature rises with νf increasing. The line at 0.1 K is close to the one at 0.01 K in the Fig. 4(b), in comparison with the two lines in the Fig. 4(a). At several Kelvin, while it seems that the TLS ensemble hardly takes part in the dissipation processes in the Fig. 4(a), the Fig. 4(b) shows that the contribution from the TLS ensemble is considerable. This difference of these two panels manifests that the TLSs with high transition frequency lead to the major contribution of phonon-TLS scattering at a given temperature.


Dissipation induced by phonon elastic scattering in crystals
The relative contribution from phonon-TLS scattering, RTLS, for various ranges of transition frequency ν of TLS ensemble.(a,b) Depict the situation for νi = 3 GHz and 10 GHz, respectively. In each figure, the lines from upper to lower indicate the various trends at T = 0.01, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5 and 1 K, respectively. In particular, the lines for T = 0.01 and 0.1 K nearly overlap each other in panel (b).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5036349&req=5

f4: The relative contribution from phonon-TLS scattering, RTLS, for various ranges of transition frequency ν of TLS ensemble.(a,b) Depict the situation for νi = 3 GHz and 10 GHz, respectively. In each figure, the lines from upper to lower indicate the various trends at T = 0.01, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5 and 1 K, respectively. In particular, the lines for T = 0.01 and 0.1 K nearly overlap each other in panel (b).
Mentions: As illustrated in Fig. 4, its panels (a) and (b) depict the situation for fixing νi = 3 GHz and 10 GHz, respectively. Whether the TLS ensemble lies in low- or high-transition frequency region, the relative contribution RTLS is higher at lower temperature. Especially at dozens of milli-kelvin, the phonon-TLS elastic scattering is the dominative dissipation mechanism. Just because of the different ratios at various temperature, the experiment in ref. 8 displays the temperature dependence of elastic scattering rate which results from phonon-TLS scattering. Additionally, all lines at different temperature rises with νf increasing. The line at 0.1 K is close to the one at 0.01 K in the Fig. 4(b), in comparison with the two lines in the Fig. 4(a). At several Kelvin, while it seems that the TLS ensemble hardly takes part in the dissipation processes in the Fig. 4(a), the Fig. 4(b) shows that the contribution from the TLS ensemble is considerable. This difference of these two panels manifests that the TLSs with high transition frequency lead to the major contribution of phonon-TLS scattering at a given temperature.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

We demonstrate that the phonon elastic scattering leads to a dominant dissipation in crystals at low temperature. The two-level systems (TLSs) should be responsible for the elastic scattering, whereas the dissipation induced by static-point defects (SPDs) can not be neglected. One purpose of this work is to show how the energy splitting distribution of the TLS ensemble affects the dissipation. Besides, this article displays the proportion of phonon-TLS elastic scattering to total phonon dissipation. The coupling coefficient of phonon-SPD scattering and the constant P0 of the TLS distribution are important that we estimate their magnitudes in this paper. Our results is useful to understand the phonon dissipation mechanism, and give some clues to improve the performance of mechanical resonators, apply the desired defects, or reveal the atom configuration in lattice structure of disordered crystals.

No MeSH data available.