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Differential Histopathological and Behavioral Outcomes Eight Weeks after Rat Spinal Cord Injury by Contusion, Dislocation, and Distraction Mechanisms

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to compare the long-term histological and behavioral outcomes after spinal cord injury (SCI) induced by one of three distinct biomechanical mechanisms: dislocation, contusion, and distraction. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to incur a traumatic cervical SCI by one of these three clinically relevant mechanisms. The injured cervical spines were surgically stabilized, and motor function was assessed for the following 8 weeks. The spinal cords were then harvested for histologic analysis. Quantification of white matter sparing using Luxol fast blue staining revealed that dislocation injury caused the greatest overall loss of white matter, both laterally and along the rostrocaudal axis of the injured cord. Distraction caused enlarged extracellular spaces and structural alteration in the white matter but spared the most myelinated axons overall. Contusion caused the most severe loss of myelinated axons in the dorsal white matter. Immunohistochemistry for the neuronal marker NeuN combined with Fluoro Nissl revealed that the dislocation mechanism resulted in the greatest neuronal cell losses in both the ventral and dorsal horns. After the distraction injury mechanism, animals displayed no recovery of grip strength over time, in contrast to the animals subjected to contusion or dislocation injuries. After the dislocation injury mechanism, animals displayed no improvement in the grooming test, in contrast to the animals subjected to contusion or distraction injuries. These data indicate that different SCI mechanisms result in distinct patterns of histopathology and behavioral recovery. Understanding this heterogeneity may be important for the future development of therapeutic interventions that target specific neuropathology after SCI.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Representative Luxol fast blue (LFB)-stained sections from normal and injured spinal cords. Representative images are shown of LFB-stained sections for the three injury mechanisms and for a normal spinal cord. The atrophy in the contusion and dislocation-injured cords compared with the control cords should be noted. The distraction cord areas were noticeably larger than both contusion and dislocation injured cords. The lesion cavity in both contusion and dislocation was confined to the epicenter and 1.6 mm rostrally and caudally, while the lesion extended as much as 5 mm after distraction injury, particularly in the caudal direction.
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f3: Representative Luxol fast blue (LFB)-stained sections from normal and injured spinal cords. Representative images are shown of LFB-stained sections for the three injury mechanisms and for a normal spinal cord. The atrophy in the contusion and dislocation-injured cords compared with the control cords should be noted. The distraction cord areas were noticeably larger than both contusion and dislocation injured cords. The lesion cavity in both contusion and dislocation was confined to the epicenter and 1.6 mm rostrally and caudally, while the lesion extended as much as 5 mm after distraction injury, particularly in the caudal direction.

Mentions: The rostrocaudal extent of the lesion cavities for contusion and dislocation injuries was confined within 3 mm of the epicenter, while for distraction injuries, the lesion cavity extended farther and was still discernible at 5 mm rostral and caudal to the epicenter in some animals (Fig. 3). The median (interquartile range) lesion volumes were 2.1 (1.7) mm3 for contusion, 2.6 (1.3) mm3 for dislocation, and 3.9 (5.0) mm3 for distraction, and these were not statistically different, mainly because of large variation in the distraction injuries.


Differential Histopathological and Behavioral Outcomes Eight Weeks after Rat Spinal Cord Injury by Contusion, Dislocation, and Distraction Mechanisms
Representative Luxol fast blue (LFB)-stained sections from normal and injured spinal cords. Representative images are shown of LFB-stained sections for the three injury mechanisms and for a normal spinal cord. The atrophy in the contusion and dislocation-injured cords compared with the control cords should be noted. The distraction cord areas were noticeably larger than both contusion and dislocation injured cords. The lesion cavity in both contusion and dislocation was confined to the epicenter and 1.6 mm rostrally and caudally, while the lesion extended as much as 5 mm after distraction injury, particularly in the caudal direction.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5035937&req=5

f3: Representative Luxol fast blue (LFB)-stained sections from normal and injured spinal cords. Representative images are shown of LFB-stained sections for the three injury mechanisms and for a normal spinal cord. The atrophy in the contusion and dislocation-injured cords compared with the control cords should be noted. The distraction cord areas were noticeably larger than both contusion and dislocation injured cords. The lesion cavity in both contusion and dislocation was confined to the epicenter and 1.6 mm rostrally and caudally, while the lesion extended as much as 5 mm after distraction injury, particularly in the caudal direction.
Mentions: The rostrocaudal extent of the lesion cavities for contusion and dislocation injuries was confined within 3 mm of the epicenter, while for distraction injuries, the lesion cavity extended farther and was still discernible at 5 mm rostral and caudal to the epicenter in some animals (Fig. 3). The median (interquartile range) lesion volumes were 2.1 (1.7) mm3 for contusion, 2.6 (1.3) mm3 for dislocation, and 3.9 (5.0) mm3 for distraction, and these were not statistically different, mainly because of large variation in the distraction injuries.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to compare the long-term histological and behavioral outcomes after spinal cord injury (SCI) induced by one of three distinct biomechanical mechanisms: dislocation, contusion, and distraction. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to incur a traumatic cervical SCI by one of these three clinically relevant mechanisms. The injured cervical spines were surgically stabilized, and motor function was assessed for the following 8 weeks. The spinal cords were then harvested for histologic analysis. Quantification of white matter sparing using Luxol fast blue staining revealed that dislocation injury caused the greatest overall loss of white matter, both laterally and along the rostrocaudal axis of the injured cord. Distraction caused enlarged extracellular spaces and structural alteration in the white matter but spared the most myelinated axons overall. Contusion caused the most severe loss of myelinated axons in the dorsal white matter. Immunohistochemistry for the neuronal marker NeuN combined with Fluoro Nissl revealed that the dislocation mechanism resulted in the greatest neuronal cell losses in both the ventral and dorsal horns. After the distraction injury mechanism, animals displayed no recovery of grip strength over time, in contrast to the animals subjected to contusion or dislocation injuries. After the dislocation injury mechanism, animals displayed no improvement in the grooming test, in contrast to the animals subjected to contusion or distraction injuries. These data indicate that different SCI mechanisms result in distinct patterns of histopathology and behavioral recovery. Understanding this heterogeneity may be important for the future development of therapeutic interventions that target specific neuropathology after SCI.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus