Limits...
Highly conductive and pure gold nanostructures grown by electron beam induced deposition

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

This work introduces an additive direct-write nanofabrication technique for producing extremely conductive gold nanostructures from a commercial metalorganic precursor. Gold content of 91 atomic % (at. %) was achieved by using water as an oxidative enhancer during direct-write deposition. A model was developed based on the deposition rate and the chemical composition, and it explains the surface processes that lead to the increases in gold purity and deposition yield. Co-injection of an oxidative enhancer enabled Focused Electron Beam Induced Deposition (FEBID)—a maskless, resistless deposition method for three dimensional (3D) nanostructures—to directly yield pure gold in a single process step, without post-deposition purification. Gold nanowires displayed resistivity down to 8.8 μΩ cm. This is the highest conductivity achieved so far from FEBID and it opens the possibility of applications in nanoelectronics, such as direct-write contacts to nanomaterials. The increased gold deposition yield and the ultralow carbon level will facilitate future applications such as the fabrication of 3D nanostructures in nanoplasmonics and biomolecule immobilization.

No MeSH data available.


Detailed parts of the TEM EELS spectrum.The acquired raw count is shown in green, the fitted exponential background is drawn in red, and the resulting background corrected signal is shown. The shown energy range in (c) is broader compared with (a,b) because of the delayed edge characteristic of the gold M signal. (d) EELS quantification results and parameters.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5035929&req=5

f3: Detailed parts of the TEM EELS spectrum.The acquired raw count is shown in green, the fitted exponential background is drawn in red, and the resulting background corrected signal is shown. The shown energy range in (c) is broader compared with (a,b) because of the delayed edge characteristic of the gold M signal. (d) EELS quantification results and parameters.

Mentions: TEM EELS analysis was performed to further investigate the chemical composition, especially of light elements. The full spectrum obtained from an energy range 0 to 2800 eV is shown in Supplement 3b. The carbon K edge is at 284 eV energy loss, whereas the oxygen K edge is at 532 eV. The gold M edge is marked at 2206 eV. A detailed section of the full spectra for carbon, oxygen, and gold are shown in Fig. 3a–c. The fitted background is shown in red, whereas the subtracted signal is shown in grey for carbon, blue for oxygen, and yellow for gold. The quantification shown in Fig. 3d demonstrates, that the deposit has a gold content of 82 at. %. Summarizing, TEM investigation indicates that water-assisted FEBID Au has a very high gold concentration.


Highly conductive and pure gold nanostructures grown by electron beam induced deposition
Detailed parts of the TEM EELS spectrum.The acquired raw count is shown in green, the fitted exponential background is drawn in red, and the resulting background corrected signal is shown. The shown energy range in (c) is broader compared with (a,b) because of the delayed edge characteristic of the gold M signal. (d) EELS quantification results and parameters.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5035929&req=5

f3: Detailed parts of the TEM EELS spectrum.The acquired raw count is shown in green, the fitted exponential background is drawn in red, and the resulting background corrected signal is shown. The shown energy range in (c) is broader compared with (a,b) because of the delayed edge characteristic of the gold M signal. (d) EELS quantification results and parameters.
Mentions: TEM EELS analysis was performed to further investigate the chemical composition, especially of light elements. The full spectrum obtained from an energy range 0 to 2800 eV is shown in Supplement 3b. The carbon K edge is at 284 eV energy loss, whereas the oxygen K edge is at 532 eV. The gold M edge is marked at 2206 eV. A detailed section of the full spectra for carbon, oxygen, and gold are shown in Fig. 3a–c. The fitted background is shown in red, whereas the subtracted signal is shown in grey for carbon, blue for oxygen, and yellow for gold. The quantification shown in Fig. 3d demonstrates, that the deposit has a gold content of 82 at. %. Summarizing, TEM investigation indicates that water-assisted FEBID Au has a very high gold concentration.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

This work introduces an additive direct-write nanofabrication technique for producing extremely conductive gold nanostructures from a commercial metalorganic precursor. Gold content of 91 atomic % (at. %) was achieved by using water as an oxidative enhancer during direct-write deposition. A model was developed based on the deposition rate and the chemical composition, and it explains the surface processes that lead to the increases in gold purity and deposition yield. Co-injection of an oxidative enhancer enabled Focused Electron Beam Induced Deposition (FEBID)—a maskless, resistless deposition method for three dimensional (3D) nanostructures—to directly yield pure gold in a single process step, without post-deposition purification. Gold nanowires displayed resistivity down to 8.8 μΩ cm. This is the highest conductivity achieved so far from FEBID and it opens the possibility of applications in nanoelectronics, such as direct-write contacts to nanomaterials. The increased gold deposition yield and the ultralow carbon level will facilitate future applications such as the fabrication of 3D nanostructures in nanoplasmonics and biomolecule immobilization.

No MeSH data available.