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Geographic correlation between deprivation and risk of meningococcal disease: an ecological study.

Williams CJ, Willocks LJ, Lake IR, Hunter PR - BMC Public Health (2004)

Bottom Line: An ecological design was used, including mapping using a Geographical Information System (GIS) at census ward level.Two-thirds of the increased incidence was due to cases in the under fives.The results suggest that area deprivation is a risk factor for meningococcal disease, and that its effects are seen most in young children.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: East & North Hertfordshire Health Protection Unit, Welwyn Garden City, Hertfordshire AL8 6JL, United Kingdom. kitwilliams@nhs.net

ABSTRACT

Background: Meningitis caused by Neisseria meningitidis is a serious infection which is most common in young children and adolescents. This study investigated the relationships between the incidence and age distribution of meningococcal disease, and socioeconomic environment.

Methods: An ecological design was used, including mapping using a Geographical Information System (GIS) at census ward level.

Results: Incidence of meningococcal disease was highest in the most deprived wards, with a relative risk of 1.97 (1.55 - 2.51). Mapping revealed geographical coincidence of deprivation and meningococcal disease, particularly in urban areas. Two-thirds of the increased incidence was due to cases in the under fives.

Conclusions: The results suggest that area deprivation is a risk factor for meningococcal disease, and that its effects are seen most in young children.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Meningococcal incidence and deprivation superimposed, Hertfordshire and west Essex* *Sources Map files : 1991 Census digitised boundary data Townsend scores: 1991 Census area statistics Software: MapInfo© professional Cases: confirmed and probable cases of invasive meningococcal disease included in analysis, enhanced surveillance data from CDSC eastern Denominator: 1999 population estimates, compendium of clinical and health indicators 2001, adjusted for true ward (see methods)
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Figure 5: Meningococcal incidence and deprivation superimposed, Hertfordshire and west Essex* *Sources Map files : 1991 Census digitised boundary data Townsend scores: 1991 Census area statistics Software: MapInfo© professional Cases: confirmed and probable cases of invasive meningococcal disease included in analysis, enhanced surveillance data from CDSC eastern Denominator: 1999 population estimates, compendium of clinical and health indicators 2001, adjusted for true ward (see methods)

Mentions: Figure 5 shows incidence rates superimposed on the deprivation map from figure 3, and magnified to show local detail in the Hertfordshire/Essex region. It shows the relationship of incidence to deprivation, with high incidence wards being clustered within and around the 'foci' of deprivation. This is particularly marked in Harlow, represented by the cluster in the lower central part of the map.


Geographic correlation between deprivation and risk of meningococcal disease: an ecological study.

Williams CJ, Willocks LJ, Lake IR, Hunter PR - BMC Public Health (2004)

Meningococcal incidence and deprivation superimposed, Hertfordshire and west Essex* *Sources Map files : 1991 Census digitised boundary data Townsend scores: 1991 Census area statistics Software: MapInfo© professional Cases: confirmed and probable cases of invasive meningococcal disease included in analysis, enhanced surveillance data from CDSC eastern Denominator: 1999 population estimates, compendium of clinical and health indicators 2001, adjusted for true ward (see methods)
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC503390&req=5

Figure 5: Meningococcal incidence and deprivation superimposed, Hertfordshire and west Essex* *Sources Map files : 1991 Census digitised boundary data Townsend scores: 1991 Census area statistics Software: MapInfo© professional Cases: confirmed and probable cases of invasive meningococcal disease included in analysis, enhanced surveillance data from CDSC eastern Denominator: 1999 population estimates, compendium of clinical and health indicators 2001, adjusted for true ward (see methods)
Mentions: Figure 5 shows incidence rates superimposed on the deprivation map from figure 3, and magnified to show local detail in the Hertfordshire/Essex region. It shows the relationship of incidence to deprivation, with high incidence wards being clustered within and around the 'foci' of deprivation. This is particularly marked in Harlow, represented by the cluster in the lower central part of the map.

Bottom Line: An ecological design was used, including mapping using a Geographical Information System (GIS) at census ward level.Two-thirds of the increased incidence was due to cases in the under fives.The results suggest that area deprivation is a risk factor for meningococcal disease, and that its effects are seen most in young children.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: East & North Hertfordshire Health Protection Unit, Welwyn Garden City, Hertfordshire AL8 6JL, United Kingdom. kitwilliams@nhs.net

ABSTRACT

Background: Meningitis caused by Neisseria meningitidis is a serious infection which is most common in young children and adolescents. This study investigated the relationships between the incidence and age distribution of meningococcal disease, and socioeconomic environment.

Methods: An ecological design was used, including mapping using a Geographical Information System (GIS) at census ward level.

Results: Incidence of meningococcal disease was highest in the most deprived wards, with a relative risk of 1.97 (1.55 - 2.51). Mapping revealed geographical coincidence of deprivation and meningococcal disease, particularly in urban areas. Two-thirds of the increased incidence was due to cases in the under fives.

Conclusions: The results suggest that area deprivation is a risk factor for meningococcal disease, and that its effects are seen most in young children.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus