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Increased skin autofluorescence of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes despite a well-controlled HbA1c: results from a cohort study

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ABSTRACT

Background: Early identification of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes at high risk for development of complications is important, as early intervention may prevent further deterioration. Here we investigate the applicability of assessing skin advanced glycation end products (sAGEs) by skin autofluorescence (SAF) as a potential surrogate risk marker.

Methods: This study included a cross-sectional analysis of SAF in 77 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and 118 healthy controls across age categories (11–12, 13–14, 15–16, and 17–19 years old). In patients, the impact of current and historical glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) values, age, and duration of diabetes on SAF was studied in a retrospective cohort study and analyzed with multivariable analyses.

Results: SAF was significantly and similarly higher in patients when compared with controls across all age categories (P ≤0.009). For patients, age, duration of diabetes, and current and historical HbA1c were associated with SAF in univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis showed no association between HbA1c and SAF. A subgroup of patients with a HbA1c-within-target (≤7.5 %/59 mmol/mol) were observed to have high SAF.

Conclusion: Children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes show higher SAF than controls. The presumed correlation of high HbA1c with high SAF does not exist in all patients. Thus, use of this non-invasive measure may provide a surrogate marker for diabetic complications, additional to HbA1c.

No MeSH data available.


Study profile. SAF skin autofluorescence
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Fig1: Study profile. SAF skin autofluorescence

Mentions: A total of 99 patients with type 1 diabetes and 141 controls were recruited, of whom 77 patients and 118 healthy controls were included (Fig. 1). Baseline characteristics of patients and controls are presented in Table 1. The median age of patients with type 1 diabetes was higher than controls (P = 0.004). Females were significantly overrepresented in the control group (P = 0.042). Historical HbA1c was determined in 73 patients (median 26 HbA1c measurements; IQR 17–37; range 3–71) in a period of 4.12 years (IQR 2.43–6.07 years; range 0.75–13.88 years).Fig. 1


Increased skin autofluorescence of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes despite a well-controlled HbA1c: results from a cohort study
Study profile. SAF skin autofluorescence
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5017065&req=5

Fig1: Study profile. SAF skin autofluorescence
Mentions: A total of 99 patients with type 1 diabetes and 141 controls were recruited, of whom 77 patients and 118 healthy controls were included (Fig. 1). Baseline characteristics of patients and controls are presented in Table 1. The median age of patients with type 1 diabetes was higher than controls (P = 0.004). Females were significantly overrepresented in the control group (P = 0.042). Historical HbA1c was determined in 73 patients (median 26 HbA1c measurements; IQR 17–37; range 3–71) in a period of 4.12 years (IQR 2.43–6.07 years; range 0.75–13.88 years).Fig. 1

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background: Early identification of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes at high risk for development of complications is important, as early intervention may prevent further deterioration. Here we investigate the applicability of assessing skin advanced glycation end products (sAGEs) by skin autofluorescence (SAF) as a potential surrogate risk marker.

Methods: This study included a cross-sectional analysis of SAF in 77 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and 118 healthy controls across age categories (11–12, 13–14, 15–16, and 17–19 years old). In patients, the impact of current and historical glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) values, age, and duration of diabetes on SAF was studied in a retrospective cohort study and analyzed with multivariable analyses.

Results: SAF was significantly and similarly higher in patients when compared with controls across all age categories (P ≤0.009). For patients, age, duration of diabetes, and current and historical HbA1c were associated with SAF in univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis showed no association between HbA1c and SAF. A subgroup of patients with a HbA1c-within-target (≤7.5 %/59 mmol/mol) were observed to have high SAF.

Conclusion: Children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes show higher SAF than controls. The presumed correlation of high HbA1c with high SAF does not exist in all patients. Thus, use of this non-invasive measure may provide a surrogate marker for diabetic complications, additional to HbA1c.

No MeSH data available.