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Phylogeography of Diptychus maculatus (Cyprinidae) endemic to the northern margin of the QTP and Tien Shan region

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ABSTRACT

Background: Phylogeography and historical demography of the cyprinid fish Diptychus maculatus (subfamily Schizothoracinae) are evaluated across three river systems in the Northern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) and Tien Shan range: the Indus River, Tarim River and Ili River.

Results: Results from both mtDNA (16S rRNA, Cyt b and D-loop) and nucDNA (RAG-2) resolved four reciprocally monophyletic clades, representing populations from Indus River, South Tarim River, North Tarim River and Ili River, respectively. The divergence times was estimated to be 1.5–2.5 Mya. It is consistent with the hypothesis that the split of four clades is the consequence of vicariance resulting from both the intensive uplift of QTP and Tien Shan as well as the resultant expansion of the Taklimakan Desert. Several lines of evidences indicate dynamic demographic histories for the populations, with late Pleistocene and Holocene population bottlenecks and expansions except the Indus River.

Conclusions: Our results clearly depicted the phylogenetic relationship of D. maculatus from Indus River, Tarim River and Ili River. The analyses implicated the relationship among the distribution of D. maculatus, paleo-drainages and geographic events, and implied the existence of the South Tarim River in history.

Electronic supplementary material: The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12862-016-0756-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

No MeSH data available.


Bayesian skyline plots (BSPs) of five allopatric clades/subclades of Diptychus maculatus. The x-axis represents time in units of 1000 years. The y-axis represents effective population size as Neτ on a log scale. The black line depicts the median population size, and the shaded areas represent the 95 % highest posterior density intervals
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Fig4: Bayesian skyline plots (BSPs) of five allopatric clades/subclades of Diptychus maculatus. The x-axis represents time in units of 1000 years. The y-axis represents effective population size as Neτ on a log scale. The black line depicts the median population size, and the shaded areas represent the 95 % highest posterior density intervals

Mentions: Historical demography for the clades Tarim, Ili and Indus River provided the independent evolutionary process of D. maculatus from different drainages (Fig. 4; Table 2). The Tajima’s D values and Fu’s Fs values indicated the population experienced a quick expansion in all clades and subclades except in the Indus River clade. Correspondingly, the star-like structure of haplotype networks within the eight clades and subclades also suggested the expansion event in the Ili River as well as North and South Tarim rivers (Fig. 2).Fig. 4


Phylogeography of Diptychus maculatus (Cyprinidae) endemic to the northern margin of the QTP and Tien Shan region
Bayesian skyline plots (BSPs) of five allopatric clades/subclades of Diptychus maculatus. The x-axis represents time in units of 1000 years. The y-axis represents effective population size as Neτ on a log scale. The black line depicts the median population size, and the shaded areas represent the 95 % highest posterior density intervals
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5017051&req=5

Fig4: Bayesian skyline plots (BSPs) of five allopatric clades/subclades of Diptychus maculatus. The x-axis represents time in units of 1000 years. The y-axis represents effective population size as Neτ on a log scale. The black line depicts the median population size, and the shaded areas represent the 95 % highest posterior density intervals
Mentions: Historical demography for the clades Tarim, Ili and Indus River provided the independent evolutionary process of D. maculatus from different drainages (Fig. 4; Table 2). The Tajima’s D values and Fu’s Fs values indicated the population experienced a quick expansion in all clades and subclades except in the Indus River clade. Correspondingly, the star-like structure of haplotype networks within the eight clades and subclades also suggested the expansion event in the Ili River as well as North and South Tarim rivers (Fig. 2).Fig. 4

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background: Phylogeography and historical demography of the cyprinid fish Diptychus maculatus (subfamily Schizothoracinae) are evaluated across three river systems in the Northern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) and Tien Shan range: the Indus River, Tarim River and Ili River.

Results: Results from both mtDNA (16S rRNA, Cyt b and D-loop) and nucDNA (RAG-2) resolved four reciprocally monophyletic clades, representing populations from Indus River, South Tarim River, North Tarim River and Ili River, respectively. The divergence times was estimated to be 1.5–2.5 Mya. It is consistent with the hypothesis that the split of four clades is the consequence of vicariance resulting from both the intensive uplift of QTP and Tien Shan as well as the resultant expansion of the Taklimakan Desert. Several lines of evidences indicate dynamic demographic histories for the populations, with late Pleistocene and Holocene population bottlenecks and expansions except the Indus River.

Conclusions: Our results clearly depicted the phylogenetic relationship of D. maculatus from Indus River, Tarim River and Ili River. The analyses implicated the relationship among the distribution of D. maculatus, paleo-drainages and geographic events, and implied the existence of the South Tarim River in history.

Electronic supplementary material: The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12862-016-0756-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

No MeSH data available.