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Phylogeography of Diptychus maculatus (Cyprinidae) endemic to the northern margin of the QTP and Tien Shan region

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ABSTRACT

Background: Phylogeography and historical demography of the cyprinid fish Diptychus maculatus (subfamily Schizothoracinae) are evaluated across three river systems in the Northern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) and Tien Shan range: the Indus River, Tarim River and Ili River.

Results: Results from both mtDNA (16S rRNA, Cyt b and D-loop) and nucDNA (RAG-2) resolved four reciprocally monophyletic clades, representing populations from Indus River, South Tarim River, North Tarim River and Ili River, respectively. The divergence times was estimated to be 1.5–2.5 Mya. It is consistent with the hypothesis that the split of four clades is the consequence of vicariance resulting from both the intensive uplift of QTP and Tien Shan as well as the resultant expansion of the Taklimakan Desert. Several lines of evidences indicate dynamic demographic histories for the populations, with late Pleistocene and Holocene population bottlenecks and expansions except the Indus River.

Conclusions: Our results clearly depicted the phylogenetic relationship of D. maculatus from Indus River, Tarim River and Ili River. The analyses implicated the relationship among the distribution of D. maculatus, paleo-drainages and geographic events, and implied the existence of the South Tarim River in history.

Electronic supplementary material: The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12862-016-0756-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

No MeSH data available.


Geographic location of Diptychus maculatus in the Tien Shan and Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Locality codes correspond with those in Table 1
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Fig1: Geographic location of Diptychus maculatus in the Tien Shan and Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Locality codes correspond with those in Table 1

Mentions: Diptychus maculatus is the species in a monotypical genus of the subfamily Schizothoracinae (Cyprinidae), which is well adapted to high-mountain streams with low temperature and hypoxia on QTP and Tien Shan [16, 17]. It is mainly distributed in the Indus River system, the Tarim River Basin and the Ili River-Balkhash Lake Basin. These big river systems were originated from the surrounding mountains. The Tarim Basin, the largest endorheic basin on our planet (Fig. 1), is bordered by the Tien Shan Mountain in the north and by Karakoram-West Kunlun Mountain in the south, which is also at the north edge of the QTP. From the north slope of Tien Shan, the Ili River flows northward into the Lake Balkhash. The Indus River flows southward to the Indian Ocean, which was originated in the Karakoram Mountain. The current Tarim River system has a five-source-one-mainstream pattern of which all tributaries originate in the south slope of Tien Shan and the north slope of West Kunlun Mountain. They flow into the Tarim Basin, across the desert from west to east, and converge on in the final destination in Lop Nur. Due to the uplift of QTP and Tien Shan in Quaternary period, the geographical and natural environments varied dramatically in the three river basins, especially in Tarim River, which is quite different from its paleo-pattern (Additional file 1: Figure S1). D. maculatus, as the endemic fishes, experienced all the environmental and geographic changes, hence, we hypothesize that the present distribution of D. maculatus is the consequence of a series of geomorphological adjustments in the region.Fig. 1


Phylogeography of Diptychus maculatus (Cyprinidae) endemic to the northern margin of the QTP and Tien Shan region
Geographic location of Diptychus maculatus in the Tien Shan and Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Locality codes correspond with those in Table 1
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5017051&req=5

Fig1: Geographic location of Diptychus maculatus in the Tien Shan and Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Locality codes correspond with those in Table 1
Mentions: Diptychus maculatus is the species in a monotypical genus of the subfamily Schizothoracinae (Cyprinidae), which is well adapted to high-mountain streams with low temperature and hypoxia on QTP and Tien Shan [16, 17]. It is mainly distributed in the Indus River system, the Tarim River Basin and the Ili River-Balkhash Lake Basin. These big river systems were originated from the surrounding mountains. The Tarim Basin, the largest endorheic basin on our planet (Fig. 1), is bordered by the Tien Shan Mountain in the north and by Karakoram-West Kunlun Mountain in the south, which is also at the north edge of the QTP. From the north slope of Tien Shan, the Ili River flows northward into the Lake Balkhash. The Indus River flows southward to the Indian Ocean, which was originated in the Karakoram Mountain. The current Tarim River system has a five-source-one-mainstream pattern of which all tributaries originate in the south slope of Tien Shan and the north slope of West Kunlun Mountain. They flow into the Tarim Basin, across the desert from west to east, and converge on in the final destination in Lop Nur. Due to the uplift of QTP and Tien Shan in Quaternary period, the geographical and natural environments varied dramatically in the three river basins, especially in Tarim River, which is quite different from its paleo-pattern (Additional file 1: Figure S1). D. maculatus, as the endemic fishes, experienced all the environmental and geographic changes, hence, we hypothesize that the present distribution of D. maculatus is the consequence of a series of geomorphological adjustments in the region.Fig. 1

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background: Phylogeography and historical demography of the cyprinid fish Diptychus maculatus (subfamily Schizothoracinae) are evaluated across three river systems in the Northern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) and Tien Shan range: the Indus River, Tarim River and Ili River.

Results: Results from both mtDNA (16S rRNA, Cyt b and D-loop) and nucDNA (RAG-2) resolved four reciprocally monophyletic clades, representing populations from Indus River, South Tarim River, North Tarim River and Ili River, respectively. The divergence times was estimated to be 1.5–2.5 Mya. It is consistent with the hypothesis that the split of four clades is the consequence of vicariance resulting from both the intensive uplift of QTP and Tien Shan as well as the resultant expansion of the Taklimakan Desert. Several lines of evidences indicate dynamic demographic histories for the populations, with late Pleistocene and Holocene population bottlenecks and expansions except the Indus River.

Conclusions: Our results clearly depicted the phylogenetic relationship of D. maculatus from Indus River, Tarim River and Ili River. The analyses implicated the relationship among the distribution of D. maculatus, paleo-drainages and geographic events, and implied the existence of the South Tarim River in history.

Electronic supplementary material: The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12862-016-0756-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

No MeSH data available.