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The social patterning of risk factors for noncommunicable diseases in five countries: evidence from the modeling the epidemiologic transition study (METS)

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ABSTRACT

Background: Associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and risk factors for noncommunicable diseases (NCD-RFs) may differ in populations at different stages of the epidemiological transition. We assessed the social patterning of NCD-RFs in a study including populations with different levels of socioeconomic development.

Methods: Data on SES, smoking, physical activity, body mass index, blood pressure, cholesterol and glucose were available from the Modeling the Epidemiologic Transition Study (METS), with about 500 participants aged 25–45 in each of five sites (Ghana, South Africa, Jamaica, Seychelles, United States).

Results: The prevalence of NCD-RFs differed between these populations from five countries (e.g., lower prevalence of smoking, obesity and hypertension in rural Ghana) and by sex (e.g., higher prevalence of smoking and physical activity in men and of obesity in women in most populations). Smoking and physical activity were associated with low SES in most populations. The associations of SES with obesity, hypertension, cholesterol and elevated blood glucose differed by population, sex, and SES indicator. For example, the prevalence of elevated blood glucose tended to be associated with low education, but not with wealth, in Seychelles and USA. The association of SES with obesity and cholesterol was direct in some populations but inverse in others.

Conclusions: In conclusion, the distribution of NCD-RFs was socially patterned in these populations at different stages of the epidemiological transition, but associations between SES and NCD-RFs differed substantially according to risk factor, population, sex, and SES indicator. These findings emphasize the need to assess and integrate the social patterning of NCD-RFs in NCD prevention and control programs in LMICs.

No MeSH data available.


Age and sex adjusted prevalence of risk factors of noncommunicable disease in five sites, by education level
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Fig1: Age and sex adjusted prevalence of risk factors of noncommunicable disease in five sites, by education level

Mentions: Age-and sex-adjusted prevalence rates of NCD-RFs in the five sites according to educational level are presented in Fig. 1. Smoking was more prevalent among participants with a low education in three sites, but was not patterned by education in the South African and Ghanaian samples. The prevalence of physical activity was higher among individuals with low education in most sites apart from South Africa. Obesity was more prevalent among individuals with middle education in all sites; hypertension among individuals with low education in the USA, Ghanaian and Jamaican samples, and among those with high education in the South African and Seychelles samples. High cholesterol was not strongly patterned by education except for the Jamaican sample (more prevalent among highly educated individuals). The prevalence of elevated blood glucose was higher among lower educated individuals in the USA and Seychelles’ samples.Fig. 1


The social patterning of risk factors for noncommunicable diseases in five countries: evidence from the modeling the epidemiologic transition study (METS)
Age and sex adjusted prevalence of risk factors of noncommunicable disease in five sites, by education level
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5017030&req=5

Fig1: Age and sex adjusted prevalence of risk factors of noncommunicable disease in five sites, by education level
Mentions: Age-and sex-adjusted prevalence rates of NCD-RFs in the five sites according to educational level are presented in Fig. 1. Smoking was more prevalent among participants with a low education in three sites, but was not patterned by education in the South African and Ghanaian samples. The prevalence of physical activity was higher among individuals with low education in most sites apart from South Africa. Obesity was more prevalent among individuals with middle education in all sites; hypertension among individuals with low education in the USA, Ghanaian and Jamaican samples, and among those with high education in the South African and Seychelles samples. High cholesterol was not strongly patterned by education except for the Jamaican sample (more prevalent among highly educated individuals). The prevalence of elevated blood glucose was higher among lower educated individuals in the USA and Seychelles’ samples.Fig. 1

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background: Associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and risk factors for noncommunicable diseases (NCD-RFs) may differ in populations at different stages of the epidemiological transition. We assessed the social patterning of NCD-RFs in a study including populations with different levels of socioeconomic development.

Methods: Data on SES, smoking, physical activity, body mass index, blood pressure, cholesterol and glucose were available from the Modeling the Epidemiologic Transition Study (METS), with about 500 participants aged 25–45 in each of five sites (Ghana, South Africa, Jamaica, Seychelles, United States).

Results: The prevalence of NCD-RFs differed between these populations from five countries (e.g., lower prevalence of smoking, obesity and hypertension in rural Ghana) and by sex (e.g., higher prevalence of smoking and physical activity in men and of obesity in women in most populations). Smoking and physical activity were associated with low SES in most populations. The associations of SES with obesity, hypertension, cholesterol and elevated blood glucose differed by population, sex, and SES indicator. For example, the prevalence of elevated blood glucose tended to be associated with low education, but not with wealth, in Seychelles and USA. The association of SES with obesity and cholesterol was direct in some populations but inverse in others.

Conclusions: In conclusion, the distribution of NCD-RFs was socially patterned in these populations at different stages of the epidemiological transition, but associations between SES and NCD-RFs differed substantially according to risk factor, population, sex, and SES indicator. These findings emphasize the need to assess and integrate the social patterning of NCD-RFs in NCD prevention and control programs in LMICs.

No MeSH data available.