Limits...
Oxidative stress in prostate hyperplasia and carcinogenesis

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Prostatic hyperplasia (PH) is a common urologic disease that affects mostly elderly men. PH can be classified as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), or prostate cancer (PCa) based on its severity. Oxidative stress (OS) is known to influence the activities of inflammatory mediators and other cellular processes involved in the initiation, promotion and progression of human neoplasms including prostate cancer. Scientific evidence also suggests that micronutrient supplementation may restore the antioxidant status and hence improve the clinical outcomes for patients with BPH and PCa. This review highlights the recent studies on prostate hyperplasia and carcinogenesis, and examines the role of OS on the molecular pathology of prostate cancer progression and treatment.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Oxidative Linked Genes Involved in Prostate Cancer: These genes have been linked to oxidative stress and their expression was aberrant in prostate cancer [26, 151]
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5017015&req=5

Fig5: Oxidative Linked Genes Involved in Prostate Cancer: These genes have been linked to oxidative stress and their expression was aberrant in prostate cancer [26, 151]

Mentions: There are other polymorphs of GST such as the mu (GSTM1) and theta (GSTT1) which regulate the conjugation of carcinogenic compounds to excretable hydrophilic metabolites making the genes more susceptible to various carcinogens. Changes in their structure such as double deletion (GSTM1-/GSTT1-) is associated with higher oxidative stress which might exacerbate the pathogenesis of BPH and PCa [36]. In normal prostate, the transduction pathway from NIK to NF-kB seems to be inactive. However, in BPH, it has been reported that TNF-α/AP-1 transduction pathway is activated followed by a stimulation of the apoptotic pathway to inhibit uncontrolled cell proliferation [134]. Another study has also demonstrated a novel link between OS and loss of imprinting, showing that OS as measured by the increase in NF-kB activity, induces loss of imprinting of insulin-like growth factor 2 in both cancerous and noncancerous human prostate cells (Fig. 5). This loss during aging contributes to tumorigenesis and NF-kB modulation is important as it may prevent age-related alteration in the epigenome [24].Fig. 5


Oxidative stress in prostate hyperplasia and carcinogenesis
Oxidative Linked Genes Involved in Prostate Cancer: These genes have been linked to oxidative stress and their expression was aberrant in prostate cancer [26, 151]
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5017015&req=5

Fig5: Oxidative Linked Genes Involved in Prostate Cancer: These genes have been linked to oxidative stress and their expression was aberrant in prostate cancer [26, 151]
Mentions: There are other polymorphs of GST such as the mu (GSTM1) and theta (GSTT1) which regulate the conjugation of carcinogenic compounds to excretable hydrophilic metabolites making the genes more susceptible to various carcinogens. Changes in their structure such as double deletion (GSTM1-/GSTT1-) is associated with higher oxidative stress which might exacerbate the pathogenesis of BPH and PCa [36]. In normal prostate, the transduction pathway from NIK to NF-kB seems to be inactive. However, in BPH, it has been reported that TNF-α/AP-1 transduction pathway is activated followed by a stimulation of the apoptotic pathway to inhibit uncontrolled cell proliferation [134]. Another study has also demonstrated a novel link between OS and loss of imprinting, showing that OS as measured by the increase in NF-kB activity, induces loss of imprinting of insulin-like growth factor 2 in both cancerous and noncancerous human prostate cells (Fig. 5). This loss during aging contributes to tumorigenesis and NF-kB modulation is important as it may prevent age-related alteration in the epigenome [24].Fig. 5

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Prostatic hyperplasia (PH) is a common urologic disease that affects mostly elderly men. PH can be classified as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), or prostate cancer (PCa) based on its severity. Oxidative stress (OS) is known to influence the activities of inflammatory mediators and other cellular processes involved in the initiation, promotion and progression of human neoplasms including prostate cancer. Scientific evidence also suggests that micronutrient supplementation may restore the antioxidant status and hence improve the clinical outcomes for patients with BPH and PCa. This review highlights the recent studies on prostate hyperplasia and carcinogenesis, and examines the role of OS on the molecular pathology of prostate cancer progression and treatment.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus