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Oxidative stress in prostate hyperplasia and carcinogenesis

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Prostatic hyperplasia (PH) is a common urologic disease that affects mostly elderly men. PH can be classified as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), or prostate cancer (PCa) based on its severity. Oxidative stress (OS) is known to influence the activities of inflammatory mediators and other cellular processes involved in the initiation, promotion and progression of human neoplasms including prostate cancer. Scientific evidence also suggests that micronutrient supplementation may restore the antioxidant status and hence improve the clinical outcomes for patients with BPH and PCa. This review highlights the recent studies on prostate hyperplasia and carcinogenesis, and examines the role of OS on the molecular pathology of prostate cancer progression and treatment.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Prostate Carcinogenesis Model: This illustrates what happens at the cellular level as prostate hyperplasia progresses from asymptomatic to metastatic stage
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Fig4: Prostate Carcinogenesis Model: This illustrates what happens at the cellular level as prostate hyperplasia progresses from asymptomatic to metastatic stage

Mentions: PCa presents different clinical signs and symptoms which range from asymptomatic, inactive, slow-growing tumors to aggressive, fast-growing tumors with lethal progression. Symptoms of PCa may include; problems passing urine, such as pain, difficulty starting or stopping the stream, or dribbling, low back pain and pain with ejaculation. The rate at which cancer grows and the difference in its appearance from surrounding tissue helps determine the stage [50]. Like most epithelial cancers the keys to survival and treatment are early diagnosis and identification of PCa type. Androgens and androgen receptor (AR) are required by both normal prostate and prostate cancer cells for growth and survival [51]. Androgen receptor mutations are observed in late stage prostate cancer. Androgen ablation and antiandrogen therapy cause the cancer to regress. Androgen-independent prostate cancer which does not respond to anti-androgen therapy has been observed in some patients especially in patients whose cancer was not cured by surgery. Overexpression of Caveolin-1 occurs in about a quarter of human prostate cancers and is thought to induce androgen sensitivity in androgen-insensitive prostate cancer cells [52]. However, a recent study has suggested that Metformin, commonly used for type 2 diabetes, may have promising therapeutic effects on both androgen-dependent and androgen-independent PCa [40]. Most facilities use diagnostic test kits that measure the level of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in serum of patients to detect early stages of PCa. If the PSA level is high, the patient is subjected to more invasive biopsy to ascertain the histopathological grading. A Gleason scoring is used to classify the extent of differentiation of tumors as well as staging (determination of the status of the primary tumors, with or without lymph node involvement) [53]. The categories of prostatitis are shown in Fig. 4.Fig. 4


Oxidative stress in prostate hyperplasia and carcinogenesis
Prostate Carcinogenesis Model: This illustrates what happens at the cellular level as prostate hyperplasia progresses from asymptomatic to metastatic stage
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5017015&req=5

Fig4: Prostate Carcinogenesis Model: This illustrates what happens at the cellular level as prostate hyperplasia progresses from asymptomatic to metastatic stage
Mentions: PCa presents different clinical signs and symptoms which range from asymptomatic, inactive, slow-growing tumors to aggressive, fast-growing tumors with lethal progression. Symptoms of PCa may include; problems passing urine, such as pain, difficulty starting or stopping the stream, or dribbling, low back pain and pain with ejaculation. The rate at which cancer grows and the difference in its appearance from surrounding tissue helps determine the stage [50]. Like most epithelial cancers the keys to survival and treatment are early diagnosis and identification of PCa type. Androgens and androgen receptor (AR) are required by both normal prostate and prostate cancer cells for growth and survival [51]. Androgen receptor mutations are observed in late stage prostate cancer. Androgen ablation and antiandrogen therapy cause the cancer to regress. Androgen-independent prostate cancer which does not respond to anti-androgen therapy has been observed in some patients especially in patients whose cancer was not cured by surgery. Overexpression of Caveolin-1 occurs in about a quarter of human prostate cancers and is thought to induce androgen sensitivity in androgen-insensitive prostate cancer cells [52]. However, a recent study has suggested that Metformin, commonly used for type 2 diabetes, may have promising therapeutic effects on both androgen-dependent and androgen-independent PCa [40]. Most facilities use diagnostic test kits that measure the level of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in serum of patients to detect early stages of PCa. If the PSA level is high, the patient is subjected to more invasive biopsy to ascertain the histopathological grading. A Gleason scoring is used to classify the extent of differentiation of tumors as well as staging (determination of the status of the primary tumors, with or without lymph node involvement) [53]. The categories of prostatitis are shown in Fig. 4.Fig. 4

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Prostatic hyperplasia (PH) is a common urologic disease that affects mostly elderly men. PH can be classified as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), or prostate cancer (PCa) based on its severity. Oxidative stress (OS) is known to influence the activities of inflammatory mediators and other cellular processes involved in the initiation, promotion and progression of human neoplasms including prostate cancer. Scientific evidence also suggests that micronutrient supplementation may restore the antioxidant status and hence improve the clinical outcomes for patients with BPH and PCa. This review highlights the recent studies on prostate hyperplasia and carcinogenesis, and examines the role of OS on the molecular pathology of prostate cancer progression and treatment.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus