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Oxidative stress in prostate hyperplasia and carcinogenesis

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Prostatic hyperplasia (PH) is a common urologic disease that affects mostly elderly men. PH can be classified as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), or prostate cancer (PCa) based on its severity. Oxidative stress (OS) is known to influence the activities of inflammatory mediators and other cellular processes involved in the initiation, promotion and progression of human neoplasms including prostate cancer. Scientific evidence also suggests that micronutrient supplementation may restore the antioxidant status and hence improve the clinical outcomes for patients with BPH and PCa. This review highlights the recent studies on prostate hyperplasia and carcinogenesis, and examines the role of OS on the molecular pathology of prostate cancer progression and treatment.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The NIH Consensus Classification of Prostatitis Syndromes [54, 56, 57, 150]
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Fig3: The NIH Consensus Classification of Prostatitis Syndromes [54, 56, 57, 150]

Mentions: Oxidative stress and body composition contribute to the progression of PCa. High fat diet (HFD) has been identified as a risk factor for PCa because HFD induces oxidative stress and inflammation in the prostate gland. This stress triggers a cascade of activities within the gland culminating to hyperplasia. HFD induces significant increases in the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and gene products. It is also speculated that HFD can activate signaling pathways. For example, the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-3 and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) which are transcription factors required for regulating genes involved in proliferation, survival, angiogenesis, invasion and inflammation [17]. Measuring body composition can be used to predict risk to developing PCa. This phenomenon has been by using a combination of the measurement of glutathione, fat mass (FM) and waist circumference (WC) to predict the risk of PCa [13]. A study has suggested that dietary fat could encourage increase in proliferation of prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and suppression of glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPx3) expression [22]. PIN stage is crucial in prostate carcinogenesis as shown in Fig. 3. Cells have gone through neoplastic changes and have become carcinogenic and ready to invade other cells. High-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia has a high predictive value and is considered as a reliable indicator of pre-invasive stage of adenocarcinoma [49]. An antioxidant, 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy benzoic acid (HMBA) has protective effects in rats against testosterone induced BPH and this may have a similar effect on PCa [29].Fig. 3


Oxidative stress in prostate hyperplasia and carcinogenesis
The NIH Consensus Classification of Prostatitis Syndromes [54, 56, 57, 150]
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5017015&req=5

Fig3: The NIH Consensus Classification of Prostatitis Syndromes [54, 56, 57, 150]
Mentions: Oxidative stress and body composition contribute to the progression of PCa. High fat diet (HFD) has been identified as a risk factor for PCa because HFD induces oxidative stress and inflammation in the prostate gland. This stress triggers a cascade of activities within the gland culminating to hyperplasia. HFD induces significant increases in the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and gene products. It is also speculated that HFD can activate signaling pathways. For example, the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-3 and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) which are transcription factors required for regulating genes involved in proliferation, survival, angiogenesis, invasion and inflammation [17]. Measuring body composition can be used to predict risk to developing PCa. This phenomenon has been by using a combination of the measurement of glutathione, fat mass (FM) and waist circumference (WC) to predict the risk of PCa [13]. A study has suggested that dietary fat could encourage increase in proliferation of prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and suppression of glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPx3) expression [22]. PIN stage is crucial in prostate carcinogenesis as shown in Fig. 3. Cells have gone through neoplastic changes and have become carcinogenic and ready to invade other cells. High-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia has a high predictive value and is considered as a reliable indicator of pre-invasive stage of adenocarcinoma [49]. An antioxidant, 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy benzoic acid (HMBA) has protective effects in rats against testosterone induced BPH and this may have a similar effect on PCa [29].Fig. 3

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Prostatic hyperplasia (PH) is a common urologic disease that affects mostly elderly men. PH can be classified as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), or prostate cancer (PCa) based on its severity. Oxidative stress (OS) is known to influence the activities of inflammatory mediators and other cellular processes involved in the initiation, promotion and progression of human neoplasms including prostate cancer. Scientific evidence also suggests that micronutrient supplementation may restore the antioxidant status and hence improve the clinical outcomes for patients with BPH and PCa. This review highlights the recent studies on prostate hyperplasia and carcinogenesis, and examines the role of OS on the molecular pathology of prostate cancer progression and treatment.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus