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Mechanotransduction-Induced Lipid Production System with High Robustness and Controllability for Microalgae

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Microalgae lipids are a promising energy source, but current biochemical methods of lipid-inductions such as nitrogen deprivation have low process robustness and controllability. Recently, use of mechanotransduction based membrane distortion by applying compression stress in a 2D-microsystem was suggested as a way to overcome these limitations of biochemical induction. However, reproduction in large numbers of cells without cell death has been difficult to overcome because compression for direct membrane distortion reduces culture volume and leads to cell death due to nutrient deprivation. In this study, a mechanotransduction-induced lipid production (MDLP) system that redirects elastic microbeads to induce membrane distortion of microalgae with alleviating cell death was developed. This system resulted in accumulation of lipid in as little as 4 hr. Once compressed, porous microbeads absorb media and swell simultaneously while homogeneously inducing compression stress of microalgae. The absorbed media within beads could be supplied to adjacent cells and could minimize cell death from nutrient deficiency. All mechanotransduction was confirmed by measuring upregulation of calcium influx and Mat3 genes. The microbeads ensured robustness and controllability in repeated compression/de-compression processes. Overall, the MDLP system has potential for use as a fundamental biodiesel process that requires robustness and controllability.

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Percentage of saturated hydrocarbon in total hydrocarbon.C14 (Tetradecane), C16 (Hexadecane), C18 (Octadecane), C20 (Eicosane), C21 (Heneicosane), C24 (Tetracosane), C27 (Heptacosane), C28 (Octacosane), C29 (Nonacosane) and total is sum of C14-29 saturated hydrocarbon. Seven different samples were analyzed in accordance with conditions of compression time (4, 8, 12 h) and compression levels (0, 4 ml).
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f6: Percentage of saturated hydrocarbon in total hydrocarbon.C14 (Tetradecane), C16 (Hexadecane), C18 (Octadecane), C20 (Eicosane), C21 (Heneicosane), C24 (Tetracosane), C27 (Heptacosane), C28 (Octacosane), C29 (Nonacosane) and total is sum of C14-29 saturated hydrocarbon. Seven different samples were analyzed in accordance with conditions of compression time (4, 8, 12 h) and compression levels (0, 4 ml).

Mentions: Lipid contents of C. reinhardtii according to bead compression was analyzed by GC/MS. Seven different samples were prepared in accordance with conditions of compression time (4, 8, 12 h) and compression levels (0, 4 ml) and their lipid contents were analyzed (Table 1). Specific changes of lipid contents were rearranged in respect of biofuel (Fig. 6). A hydrocarbon converted in microalgae is a source of second and third biofuels16. Saturated hydrocarbons, alkanes, are the fundamental source of petroleum fuels17. Especially, long chain saturated hydrocarbon is related to the higher heating value (HHV) which is a representative property defining efficiency of fuels18. All compressed samples showed that ratio of total saturated hydrocarbons to total hydrocarbons increased as compared with the control.


Mechanotransduction-Induced Lipid Production System with High Robustness and Controllability for Microalgae
Percentage of saturated hydrocarbon in total hydrocarbon.C14 (Tetradecane), C16 (Hexadecane), C18 (Octadecane), C20 (Eicosane), C21 (Heneicosane), C24 (Tetracosane), C27 (Heptacosane), C28 (Octacosane), C29 (Nonacosane) and total is sum of C14-29 saturated hydrocarbon. Seven different samples were analyzed in accordance with conditions of compression time (4, 8, 12 h) and compression levels (0, 4 ml).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5016897&req=5

f6: Percentage of saturated hydrocarbon in total hydrocarbon.C14 (Tetradecane), C16 (Hexadecane), C18 (Octadecane), C20 (Eicosane), C21 (Heneicosane), C24 (Tetracosane), C27 (Heptacosane), C28 (Octacosane), C29 (Nonacosane) and total is sum of C14-29 saturated hydrocarbon. Seven different samples were analyzed in accordance with conditions of compression time (4, 8, 12 h) and compression levels (0, 4 ml).
Mentions: Lipid contents of C. reinhardtii according to bead compression was analyzed by GC/MS. Seven different samples were prepared in accordance with conditions of compression time (4, 8, 12 h) and compression levels (0, 4 ml) and their lipid contents were analyzed (Table 1). Specific changes of lipid contents were rearranged in respect of biofuel (Fig. 6). A hydrocarbon converted in microalgae is a source of second and third biofuels16. Saturated hydrocarbons, alkanes, are the fundamental source of petroleum fuels17. Especially, long chain saturated hydrocarbon is related to the higher heating value (HHV) which is a representative property defining efficiency of fuels18. All compressed samples showed that ratio of total saturated hydrocarbons to total hydrocarbons increased as compared with the control.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Microalgae lipids are a promising energy source, but current biochemical methods of lipid-inductions such as nitrogen deprivation have low process robustness and controllability. Recently, use of mechanotransduction based membrane distortion by applying compression stress in a 2D-microsystem was suggested as a way to overcome these limitations of biochemical induction. However, reproduction in large numbers of cells without cell death has been difficult to overcome because compression for direct membrane distortion reduces culture volume and leads to cell death due to nutrient deprivation. In this study, a mechanotransduction-induced lipid production (MDLP) system that redirects elastic microbeads to induce membrane distortion of microalgae with alleviating cell death was developed. This system resulted in accumulation of lipid in as little as 4 hr. Once compressed, porous microbeads absorb media and swell simultaneously while homogeneously inducing compression stress of microalgae. The absorbed media within beads could be supplied to adjacent cells and could minimize cell death from nutrient deficiency. All mechanotransduction was confirmed by measuring upregulation of calcium influx and Mat3 genes. The microbeads ensured robustness and controllability in repeated compression/de-compression processes. Overall, the MDLP system has potential for use as a fundamental biodiesel process that requires robustness and controllability.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus