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The Korean herbal medicine, Do In Seung Gi-Tang, attenuates atherosclerosis via AMPK in high-fat diet-induced ApoE − / − mice

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ABSTRACT

Background: Do In Seung Gi-Tang (DISGT) is an herbal mixture of traditional Korean medicine that is composed of Rheum undulatum Linne, Prunus Persica (L.) Batsch, Conyza canadensis L., Cinnamomum Cassia Presl, and Glycytthiza uralensis Fischer (8: 6: 4: 4: 4 ratio). We investigated the effect of DISGT on vascular inflammation and lipid accumulation in apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE−/−) mice.

Methods: ApoE−/− mice that were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) were treated with DISGT (300 mg/kg/day) or statin (10 mg/kg/day) for 16 weeks. Serum lipid levels were analyzed. Oil Red O staining was used to evaluate atherosclerotic lesions and lipid accumulation in the aorta and liver, respectively. The expression of adhesion molecules (intercellular adhesion molecule-1 [ICAM-1], vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 [VCAM-1], and E-selectin), fatty acid synthase (FAS), adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and acetyl-coA carboxylase (ACC) in the aorta or liver tissues was measured by western blot analysis. Lipid synthesis and inflammatory responses were assessed by immunohistochemistry and hematoxylin & eosin staining, respectively.

Results: Treatment of HFD-fed mice with DISGT significantly lowered body weight, liver weight, and the levels of lipids, including total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and triglycerides. Glucose levels were also lowered. In the aorta, DISGT attenuated atherosclerotic lesions and reduced the expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin. Moreover, DISGT decreased lipid accumulation, inflammatory responses, and FAS levels, and it activated AMPK and reduced ACC expression in liver tissues.

Conclusions: The beneficial, anti-lipolytic, and anti-inflammatory effects of DISGT were mediated by the AMPK pathway. As a result, the expression of inflammatory factors was reduced. Our data provide evidence that DISGT may have strong therapeutic potential in treating vascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis.

No MeSH data available.


Effect of DISGT on attenuating fatty acid synthase (FAS) expression in the livers of HFD-fed ApoE−/− mice. a Expression of lipogenic enzymes, such as FAS, and inflammatory factors in the livers and aortas of HFD-fed mice, respectively. b Protein expression levels of FAS were determined by western blot analysis. Values are mean ± SEM. ***p < 0.001 vs. ND; ##p < 0.01, ###p < 0.001vs. HFD
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Fig4: Effect of DISGT on attenuating fatty acid synthase (FAS) expression in the livers of HFD-fed ApoE−/− mice. a Expression of lipogenic enzymes, such as FAS, and inflammatory factors in the livers and aortas of HFD-fed mice, respectively. b Protein expression levels of FAS were determined by western blot analysis. Values are mean ± SEM. ***p < 0.001 vs. ND; ##p < 0.01, ###p < 0.001vs. HFD

Mentions: FAS is involved in the synthesis of fatty acids and TGs, and it is known to be upregulated in HFD-fed mice. The expression of FAS in liver tissues of HFD-fed mice was reduced by DISGT or statin treatment (Fig. 4a). Also, the effect of DISGT on decreasing FAS expression was further confirmed by western blotting (Fig. 4b).Fig. 4


The Korean herbal medicine, Do In Seung Gi-Tang, attenuates atherosclerosis via AMPK in high-fat diet-induced ApoE − / − mice
Effect of DISGT on attenuating fatty acid synthase (FAS) expression in the livers of HFD-fed ApoE−/− mice. a Expression of lipogenic enzymes, such as FAS, and inflammatory factors in the livers and aortas of HFD-fed mice, respectively. b Protein expression levels of FAS were determined by western blot analysis. Values are mean ± SEM. ***p < 0.001 vs. ND; ##p < 0.01, ###p < 0.001vs. HFD
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5016892&req=5

Fig4: Effect of DISGT on attenuating fatty acid synthase (FAS) expression in the livers of HFD-fed ApoE−/− mice. a Expression of lipogenic enzymes, such as FAS, and inflammatory factors in the livers and aortas of HFD-fed mice, respectively. b Protein expression levels of FAS were determined by western blot analysis. Values are mean ± SEM. ***p < 0.001 vs. ND; ##p < 0.01, ###p < 0.001vs. HFD
Mentions: FAS is involved in the synthesis of fatty acids and TGs, and it is known to be upregulated in HFD-fed mice. The expression of FAS in liver tissues of HFD-fed mice was reduced by DISGT or statin treatment (Fig. 4a). Also, the effect of DISGT on decreasing FAS expression was further confirmed by western blotting (Fig. 4b).Fig. 4

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background: Do In Seung Gi-Tang (DISGT) is an herbal mixture of traditional Korean medicine that is composed of Rheum undulatum Linne, Prunus Persica (L.) Batsch, Conyza canadensis L., Cinnamomum Cassia Presl, and Glycytthiza uralensis Fischer (8: 6: 4: 4: 4 ratio). We investigated the effect of DISGT on vascular inflammation and lipid accumulation in apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE&minus;/&minus;) mice.

Methods: ApoE&minus;/&minus; mice that were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) were treated with DISGT (300&nbsp;mg/kg/day) or statin (10&nbsp;mg/kg/day) for 16&nbsp;weeks. Serum lipid levels were analyzed. Oil Red O staining was used to evaluate atherosclerotic lesions and lipid accumulation in the aorta and liver, respectively. The expression of adhesion molecules (intercellular adhesion molecule-1 [ICAM-1], vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 [VCAM-1], and E-selectin), fatty acid synthase (FAS), adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and acetyl-coA carboxylase (ACC) in the aorta or liver tissues was measured by western blot analysis. Lipid synthesis and inflammatory responses were assessed by immunohistochemistry and hematoxylin &amp; eosin staining, respectively.

Results: Treatment of HFD-fed mice with DISGT significantly lowered body weight, liver weight, and the levels of lipids, including total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and triglycerides. Glucose levels were also lowered. In the aorta, DISGT attenuated atherosclerotic lesions and reduced the expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin. Moreover, DISGT decreased lipid accumulation, inflammatory responses, and FAS levels, and it activated AMPK and reduced ACC expression in liver tissues.

Conclusions: The beneficial, anti-lipolytic, and anti-inflammatory effects of DISGT were mediated by the AMPK pathway. As a result, the expression of inflammatory factors was reduced. Our data provide evidence that DISGT may have strong therapeutic potential in treating vascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis.

No MeSH data available.