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Sigmund Exner ’ s (1887) Einige Beobachtungen ü ber Bewegungsnachbilder (Some Observations on Movement Aftereffects): An Illustrated Translation With Commentary

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ABSTRACT

In his original contribution, Exner’s principal concern was a comparison between the properties of different aftereffects, and particularly to determine whether aftereffects of motion were similar to those of color and whether they could be encompassed within a unified physiological framework. Despite the fact that he was unable to answer his main question, there are some excellent—so far unknown—contributions in Exner’s paper. For example, he describes observations that can be related to binocular interaction, not only in motion aftereffects but also in rivalry. To the best of our knowledge, Exner provides the first description of binocular rivalry induced by differently moving patterns in each eye, for motion as well as for their aftereffects. Moreover, apart from several known, but beautifully addressed, phenomena he makes a clear distinction between motion in depth based on stimulus properties and motion in depth based on the interpretation of motion. That is, the experience of movement, as distinct from the perception of movement. The experience, unlike the perception, did not result in a motion aftereffect in depth.

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A portrait of Sigmund Exner combined with the first page of his 1887 article on the movement aftereffect (by Nicholas Wade).
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fig1-2041669515593044: A portrait of Sigmund Exner combined with the first page of his 1887 article on the movement aftereffect (by Nicholas Wade).

Mentions: Exner (see Figure 1) was born in Vienna, where he spent most of his life and where he died. After completing his medical studies at the University of Vienna, he became an assistant to Ernst Wilhelm von Brücke (1819–1892) and later worked with Hermann von Helmholtz (1821–1894) in Heidelberg. In 1891, he became the head of the Institute for Physiology of the University of Vienna, as successor to von Brücke. Exner was one of the teachers of the Gestalt psychologist Max Wertheimer, and he was undoubtedly one of the most important scientists of his time. He examined the apparent motion of brief flashes (Exner, 1875b) and introduced the term reaction time (Exner, 1873). Following his research on the facetted insect eye (Exner & Eckhard, 1891), he is regarded as one of the founding fathers of the field of comparative physiology, and he worked on a wide range of other topics, including cortical localization (Exner & Eckhard, 1881).Figure 1.


Sigmund Exner ’ s (1887) Einige Beobachtungen ü ber Bewegungsnachbilder (Some Observations on Movement Aftereffects): An Illustrated Translation With Commentary
A portrait of Sigmund Exner combined with the first page of his 1887 article on the movement aftereffect (by Nicholas Wade).
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2 - License 3
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5016818&req=5

fig1-2041669515593044: A portrait of Sigmund Exner combined with the first page of his 1887 article on the movement aftereffect (by Nicholas Wade).
Mentions: Exner (see Figure 1) was born in Vienna, where he spent most of his life and where he died. After completing his medical studies at the University of Vienna, he became an assistant to Ernst Wilhelm von Brücke (1819–1892) and later worked with Hermann von Helmholtz (1821–1894) in Heidelberg. In 1891, he became the head of the Institute for Physiology of the University of Vienna, as successor to von Brücke. Exner was one of the teachers of the Gestalt psychologist Max Wertheimer, and he was undoubtedly one of the most important scientists of his time. He examined the apparent motion of brief flashes (Exner, 1875b) and introduced the term reaction time (Exner, 1873). Following his research on the facetted insect eye (Exner & Eckhard, 1891), he is regarded as one of the founding fathers of the field of comparative physiology, and he worked on a wide range of other topics, including cortical localization (Exner & Eckhard, 1881).Figure 1.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

In his original contribution, Exner’s principal concern was a comparison between the properties of different aftereffects, and particularly to determine whether aftereffects of motion were similar to those of color and whether they could be encompassed within a unified physiological framework. Despite the fact that he was unable to answer his main question, there are some excellent—so far unknown—contributions in Exner’s paper. For example, he describes observations that can be related to binocular interaction, not only in motion aftereffects but also in rivalry. To the best of our knowledge, Exner provides the first description of binocular rivalry induced by differently moving patterns in each eye, for motion as well as for their aftereffects. Moreover, apart from several known, but beautifully addressed, phenomena he makes a clear distinction between motion in depth based on stimulus properties and motion in depth based on the interpretation of motion. That is, the experience of movement, as distinct from the perception of movement. The experience, unlike the perception, did not result in a motion aftereffect in depth.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus