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Rate of biological invasions is lower in coastal marine protected areas

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Marine biological invasions threaten biodiversity worldwide. Here we explore how Marine Protected areas, by reducing human use of the coast, confer resilience against the introduction of non-indigenous species (NIS), using two very different Pacific islands as case studies for developing and testing mathematical models. We quantified NIS vectors and promoters on Vancouver (Canada) and Moorea (French Polynesia) islands, sampled and barcoded NIS, and tested models at different spatial scales with different types of interaction among vectors and between marine protection and NIS frequency. In our results NIS were negatively correlated with the dimension of the protected areas and the intensity of the protection. Small to medium geographical scale protection seemed to be efficient against NIS introductions. The likely benefit of MPAs was by exclusion of aquaculture, principally in Canada. These results emphasize the importance of marine protected areas for biodiversity conservation, and suggest that small or medium protected zones would confer efficient protection against NIS introduction.

No MeSH data available.


Map of the sampling sites and protected areas in the two Pacific islands considered.Moorea Island is represented at the same scale as Vancouver Island in the small square above right, and at x10 scale in the square below left. Red, yellow and green colors mark areas with high, medium and low protective status respectively, as it is represented in official websites of each island. Lack of color means no spatial protection. Manually drawn by Alba Ardura with the software Microsoft Paint within Microsoft Office 2013. They were generated with OpenStreetMap licensed under CC BY-SA (www.openstreetmap.org/copyright). The license terms can be found on the following link: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/Vancouver Island: 1. Cortes Island, 2. Fanny Bay, 3. Nanoose Bay, 4. Ladysmith, 5. Crofton, 6. Portland Island, 7. Sidney, 8. Victoria, 9. Sooke, 10. China Beach, 11. Bamfield, 12. Port Alberni, 13. Salmon Beach, 14. Long Beach. Moorea Island: 1. Entre 2 Baies, 2. Pao-Pao, 3. Maharepa, 4. Temae, 5. Vaiare, 6. Fareahu, 7. Afareaitu, 8. Maatea, 9. Atiha, 10. Vaianae, 11. Haapiti, 12. Tiki, 13. Hauru, 14. Tiahura, 15. Papetoai, 16. Opunohu.
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f1: Map of the sampling sites and protected areas in the two Pacific islands considered.Moorea Island is represented at the same scale as Vancouver Island in the small square above right, and at x10 scale in the square below left. Red, yellow and green colors mark areas with high, medium and low protective status respectively, as it is represented in official websites of each island. Lack of color means no spatial protection. Manually drawn by Alba Ardura with the software Microsoft Paint within Microsoft Office 2013. They were generated with OpenStreetMap licensed under CC BY-SA (www.openstreetmap.org/copyright). The license terms can be found on the following link: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/Vancouver Island: 1. Cortes Island, 2. Fanny Bay, 3. Nanoose Bay, 4. Ladysmith, 5. Crofton, 6. Portland Island, 7. Sidney, 8. Victoria, 9. Sooke, 10. China Beach, 11. Bamfield, 12. Port Alberni, 13. Salmon Beach, 14. Long Beach. Moorea Island: 1. Entre 2 Baies, 2. Pao-Pao, 3. Maharepa, 4. Temae, 5. Vaiare, 6. Fareahu, 7. Afareaitu, 8. Maatea, 9. Atiha, 10. Vaianae, 11. Haapiti, 12. Tiki, 13. Hauru, 14. Tiahura, 15. Papetoai, 16. Opunohu.

Mentions: The mollusc species and samples per site obtained from Moorea Island were described in Ardura et al.5. The same data for Vancouver Island are shown in Supplementary Table 1. Briefly, on Moorea Island a total of 1487 individuals were sampled from 16 sites corresponding to 26 species (3 Bivalvia and 23 Gastropoda). On Vancouver Island a total of 1049 individuals were found in the 14 sites considered (Fig. 1). They corresponded to 32 species: 12 Bivalvia, 18 Gastropoda and 2 Polyplacopohora (chitons) (Supplementary Table 1). The COI and 16S rDNA sequences that identify these species were submitted to GenBank (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genbank/), where they are available for COI and 16S rDNA, respectively, with the accession numbers KC732781-KC732805, KP06789-KP06818, KT970491-KT970498; and KP06819-KP06834, KT970487-KT970490.


Rate of biological invasions is lower in coastal marine protected areas
Map of the sampling sites and protected areas in the two Pacific islands considered.Moorea Island is represented at the same scale as Vancouver Island in the small square above right, and at x10 scale in the square below left. Red, yellow and green colors mark areas with high, medium and low protective status respectively, as it is represented in official websites of each island. Lack of color means no spatial protection. Manually drawn by Alba Ardura with the software Microsoft Paint within Microsoft Office 2013. They were generated with OpenStreetMap licensed under CC BY-SA (www.openstreetmap.org/copyright). The license terms can be found on the following link: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/Vancouver Island: 1. Cortes Island, 2. Fanny Bay, 3. Nanoose Bay, 4. Ladysmith, 5. Crofton, 6. Portland Island, 7. Sidney, 8. Victoria, 9. Sooke, 10. China Beach, 11. Bamfield, 12. Port Alberni, 13. Salmon Beach, 14. Long Beach. Moorea Island: 1. Entre 2 Baies, 2. Pao-Pao, 3. Maharepa, 4. Temae, 5. Vaiare, 6. Fareahu, 7. Afareaitu, 8. Maatea, 9. Atiha, 10. Vaianae, 11. Haapiti, 12. Tiki, 13. Hauru, 14. Tiahura, 15. Papetoai, 16. Opunohu.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5016778&req=5

f1: Map of the sampling sites and protected areas in the two Pacific islands considered.Moorea Island is represented at the same scale as Vancouver Island in the small square above right, and at x10 scale in the square below left. Red, yellow and green colors mark areas with high, medium and low protective status respectively, as it is represented in official websites of each island. Lack of color means no spatial protection. Manually drawn by Alba Ardura with the software Microsoft Paint within Microsoft Office 2013. They were generated with OpenStreetMap licensed under CC BY-SA (www.openstreetmap.org/copyright). The license terms can be found on the following link: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/Vancouver Island: 1. Cortes Island, 2. Fanny Bay, 3. Nanoose Bay, 4. Ladysmith, 5. Crofton, 6. Portland Island, 7. Sidney, 8. Victoria, 9. Sooke, 10. China Beach, 11. Bamfield, 12. Port Alberni, 13. Salmon Beach, 14. Long Beach. Moorea Island: 1. Entre 2 Baies, 2. Pao-Pao, 3. Maharepa, 4. Temae, 5. Vaiare, 6. Fareahu, 7. Afareaitu, 8. Maatea, 9. Atiha, 10. Vaianae, 11. Haapiti, 12. Tiki, 13. Hauru, 14. Tiahura, 15. Papetoai, 16. Opunohu.
Mentions: The mollusc species and samples per site obtained from Moorea Island were described in Ardura et al.5. The same data for Vancouver Island are shown in Supplementary Table 1. Briefly, on Moorea Island a total of 1487 individuals were sampled from 16 sites corresponding to 26 species (3 Bivalvia and 23 Gastropoda). On Vancouver Island a total of 1049 individuals were found in the 14 sites considered (Fig. 1). They corresponded to 32 species: 12 Bivalvia, 18 Gastropoda and 2 Polyplacopohora (chitons) (Supplementary Table 1). The COI and 16S rDNA sequences that identify these species were submitted to GenBank (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genbank/), where they are available for COI and 16S rDNA, respectively, with the accession numbers KC732781-KC732805, KP06789-KP06818, KT970491-KT970498; and KP06819-KP06834, KT970487-KT970490.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Marine biological invasions threaten biodiversity worldwide. Here we explore how Marine Protected areas, by reducing human use of the coast, confer resilience against the introduction of non-indigenous species (NIS), using two very different Pacific islands as case studies for developing and testing mathematical models. We quantified NIS vectors and promoters on Vancouver (Canada) and Moorea (French Polynesia) islands, sampled and barcoded NIS, and tested models at different spatial scales with different types of interaction among vectors and between marine protection and NIS frequency. In our results NIS were negatively correlated with the dimension of the protected areas and the intensity of the protection. Small to medium geographical scale protection seemed to be efficient against NIS introductions. The likely benefit of MPAs was by exclusion of aquaculture, principally in Canada. These results emphasize the importance of marine protected areas for biodiversity conservation, and suggest that small or medium protected zones would confer efficient protection against NIS introduction.

No MeSH data available.