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Distinguishing Dispositional and Cultivated Forms of Mindfulness: Item-Level Factor Analysis of Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire and Construction of Short Inventory of Mindfulness Capability

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ABSTRACT

The widely used Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) mixes the dispositional and cultivated forms of mindfulness, thereby resulting in factor issues in previous studies. The present study distinguished the two forms of mindfulness and developed a Short Inventory of Mindfulness Capability at the item level of FFMQ. Three facets of mindfulness, namely, Describing, Acting with Awareness, and Non-judging of Experience, were assessed using community (n = 433) and student (n = 347) samples. Both meditators and non-meditators participated. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) revealed a three-factor model of mindfulness with 12 items (four items per subscale). Psychometric evaluation demonstrated the solid factor structure of the measurement with high factor loadings, good internal consistency, and convergent validities. Longitudinal analysis indicated that the Acting with Awareness facet was a significant predictor of depression and anxiety symptoms 6 months later. Discussions focused on the roles of mindfulness capability on mental health as well as the relationship between them. A higher-order factor of mindfulness should be used to examine the efficacy of intervention or monitor the changes. Researchers who need to study the specific role or efficacy of each facet should calculate the scores of different facets.

No MeSH data available.


Standardized path coefficients of the SIM-C model in student sample. Mindful, Mindfulness; desc, Describing; acta, Act-Aware; nonj, Non-judging; All paths are significant at 0.001 level.
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Figure 1: Standardized path coefficients of the SIM-C model in student sample. Mindful, Mindfulness; desc, Describing; acta, Act-Aware; nonj, Non-judging; All paths are significant at 0.001 level.

Mentions: Table 1 provides the factor structure and loadings of the 12 remaining items, which had loadings higher than 0.46 and completely explained 67.56% of variances. This short form of FFMQ was renamed Short Inventory of Mindfulness Capability (SIM-C). The student sample was used to further investigate the factor structure of SIM-C through CFA. On the basis of previous studies, three comparable models were constructed, including the single factor model, related-factor model, and hierarchical-factor model. The results in Table 2 indicated that both related and hierarchical models had acceptable indices. Similar results were obtained in previous studies (Duan et al., 2012, 2013; Ho et al., 2016). Figure 1 illustrates the standardized path coefficients of the hierarchical-factor model.


Distinguishing Dispositional and Cultivated Forms of Mindfulness: Item-Level Factor Analysis of Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire and Construction of Short Inventory of Mindfulness Capability
Standardized path coefficients of the SIM-C model in student sample. Mindful, Mindfulness; desc, Describing; acta, Act-Aware; nonj, Non-judging; All paths are significant at 0.001 level.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5016712&req=5

Figure 1: Standardized path coefficients of the SIM-C model in student sample. Mindful, Mindfulness; desc, Describing; acta, Act-Aware; nonj, Non-judging; All paths are significant at 0.001 level.
Mentions: Table 1 provides the factor structure and loadings of the 12 remaining items, which had loadings higher than 0.46 and completely explained 67.56% of variances. This short form of FFMQ was renamed Short Inventory of Mindfulness Capability (SIM-C). The student sample was used to further investigate the factor structure of SIM-C through CFA. On the basis of previous studies, three comparable models were constructed, including the single factor model, related-factor model, and hierarchical-factor model. The results in Table 2 indicated that both related and hierarchical models had acceptable indices. Similar results were obtained in previous studies (Duan et al., 2012, 2013; Ho et al., 2016). Figure 1 illustrates the standardized path coefficients of the hierarchical-factor model.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

The widely used Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) mixes the dispositional and cultivated forms of mindfulness, thereby resulting in factor issues in previous studies. The present study distinguished the two forms of mindfulness and developed a Short Inventory of Mindfulness Capability at the item level of FFMQ. Three facets of mindfulness, namely, Describing, Acting with Awareness, and Non-judging of Experience, were assessed using community (n = 433) and student (n = 347) samples. Both meditators and non-meditators participated. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) revealed a three-factor model of mindfulness with 12 items (four items per subscale). Psychometric evaluation demonstrated the solid factor structure of the measurement with high factor loadings, good internal consistency, and convergent validities. Longitudinal analysis indicated that the Acting with Awareness facet was a significant predictor of depression and anxiety symptoms 6 months later. Discussions focused on the roles of mindfulness capability on mental health as well as the relationship between them. A higher-order factor of mindfulness should be used to examine the efficacy of intervention or monitor the changes. Researchers who need to study the specific role or efficacy of each facet should calculate the scores of different facets.

No MeSH data available.