Limits...
Species traits and environmental characteristics together regulate ant ‐ associated biodiversity

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Host‐associated organisms (e.g., parasites, commensals, and mutualists) may rely on their hosts for only a portion of their life cycle. The life‐history traits and physiology of hosts are well‐known determinants of the biodiversity of their associated organisms. The environmental context may strongly influence this interaction, but the relative roles of host traits and the environment are poorly known for host‐associated communities. We studied the roles of host traits and environmental characteristics affecting ant‐associated mites in semi‐natural constructed grasslands in agricultural landscapes of the Midwest USA. Mites are frequently found in ant nests and also riding on ants in a commensal dispersal relationship known as phoresy. During nonphoretic stages of their development, ant‐associated mites rely on soil or nest resources, which may vary depending on host traits and the environmental context of the colony. We hypothesized that mite diversity is determined by availability of suitable host ant species, soil detrital resources and texture, and habitat disturbance. Results showed that that large‐bodied and widely distributed ant species within grasslands support the most diverse mite assemblages. Mite richness and abundance were predicted by overall ant richness and grassland area, but host traits and environmental predictors varied among ant hosts: mites associated with Aphaenogaster rudis depended on litter depth, while Myrmica americana associates were predicted by host frequency and grassland age. Multivariate ordinations of mite community composition constructed with host ant species as predictors demonstrated host specialization at both the ant species and genus levels, while ordinations with environmental variables showed that ant richness, soil texture, and grassland age also contributed to mite community structure. Our results demonstrate that large‐bodied, locally abundant, and cosmopolitan ant species are especially important regulators of phoretic mite diversity and that their role as hosts is also dependent on the context of the interaction, especially soil resources, texture, site age, and area.

No MeSH data available.


Species accumulation curve of mite species by number of host ant individuals inspected. Number of points on a curve represents the number of sites where the ant host was collected, while length of the curve represents the number of ant individuals inspected. Ant species that are more cosmopolitan (at more sites) and more abundant also have higher observed (O) and Chao1 estimated (E) species richness.
© Copyright Policy - creativeCommonsBy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5016658&req=5

ece32276-fig-0002: Species accumulation curve of mite species by number of host ant individuals inspected. Number of points on a curve represents the number of sites where the ant host was collected, while length of the curve represents the number of ant individuals inspected. Ant species that are more cosmopolitan (at more sites) and more abundant also have higher observed (O) and Chao1 estimated (E) species richness.

Mentions: There was an average of 6.6 mite species associated with each ant species (excluding M. minimum); however, some ant species hosted much greater diversity, such as Myrmica americana, with 18 species and 937 mite individuals (Table S1). We used a species accumulation curve to summarize the observed and Chao 1 estimate (Chao et al. 2005) of mite species for seven common ant hosts that carried 97.5% of the overall mite abundance and 77.4% of the total richness (Fig. 2). Ant species that were more cosmopolitan (at more sites) and more abundant tended to have higher observed and estimated species richness. The best model for predicting mite richness among host species (host suitability) included host body size and host abundance (P < 0.0001, Dev. expl. = 63.0%).


Species traits and environmental characteristics together regulate ant ‐ associated biodiversity
Species accumulation curve of mite species by number of host ant individuals inspected. Number of points on a curve represents the number of sites where the ant host was collected, while length of the curve represents the number of ant individuals inspected. Ant species that are more cosmopolitan (at more sites) and more abundant also have higher observed (O) and Chao1 estimated (E) species richness.
© Copyright Policy - creativeCommonsBy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5016658&req=5

ece32276-fig-0002: Species accumulation curve of mite species by number of host ant individuals inspected. Number of points on a curve represents the number of sites where the ant host was collected, while length of the curve represents the number of ant individuals inspected. Ant species that are more cosmopolitan (at more sites) and more abundant also have higher observed (O) and Chao1 estimated (E) species richness.
Mentions: There was an average of 6.6 mite species associated with each ant species (excluding M. minimum); however, some ant species hosted much greater diversity, such as Myrmica americana, with 18 species and 937 mite individuals (Table S1). We used a species accumulation curve to summarize the observed and Chao 1 estimate (Chao et al. 2005) of mite species for seven common ant hosts that carried 97.5% of the overall mite abundance and 77.4% of the total richness (Fig. 2). Ant species that were more cosmopolitan (at more sites) and more abundant tended to have higher observed and estimated species richness. The best model for predicting mite richness among host species (host suitability) included host body size and host abundance (P < 0.0001, Dev. expl. = 63.0%).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Host&#8208;associated organisms (e.g., parasites, commensals, and mutualists) may rely on their hosts for only a portion of their life cycle. The life&#8208;history traits and physiology of hosts are well&#8208;known determinants of the biodiversity of their associated organisms. The environmental context may strongly influence this interaction, but the relative roles of host traits and the environment are poorly known for host&#8208;associated communities. We studied the roles of host traits and environmental characteristics affecting ant&#8208;associated mites in semi&#8208;natural constructed grasslands in agricultural landscapes of the Midwest USA. Mites are frequently found in ant nests and also riding on ants in a commensal dispersal relationship known as phoresy. During nonphoretic stages of their development, ant&#8208;associated mites rely on soil or nest resources, which may vary depending on host traits and the environmental context of the colony. We hypothesized that mite diversity is determined by availability of suitable host ant species, soil detrital resources and texture, and habitat disturbance. Results showed that that large&#8208;bodied and widely distributed ant species within grasslands support the most diverse mite assemblages. Mite richness and abundance were predicted by overall ant richness and grassland area, but host traits and environmental predictors varied among ant hosts: mites associated with Aphaenogaster rudis depended on litter depth, while Myrmica americana associates were predicted by host frequency and grassland age. Multivariate ordinations of mite community composition constructed with host ant species as predictors demonstrated host specialization at both the ant species and genus levels, while ordinations with environmental variables showed that ant richness, soil texture, and grassland age also contributed to mite community structure. Our results demonstrate that large&#8208;bodied, locally abundant, and cosmopolitan ant species are especially important regulators of phoretic mite diversity and that their role as hosts is also dependent on the context of the interaction, especially soil resources, texture, site age, and area.

No MeSH data available.