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Factors influencing IUCN threat levels to orchids across Europe on the basis of national red lists

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

The red list has become a ubiquitous tool in the conservation of species. We analyzed contemporary trends in the threat levels of European orchids, in total 166 species characterized in 27 national red lists, in relation to their reproductive biology and growth form, distribution area, and land cover where they occur. We found that species in central Europe are more threatened than those in the northern, southern, or Atlantic parts of Europe, while species were least threatened in southern Europe. Nectarless and tuberous species are significantly more threatened than nectariferous and rhizomatous taxa. Land cover (ratios of artificial land cover, area of pastures and grasslands, forests and inland wetlands) also significantly impacted the threat level. A bigger share of artificial land cover increases threat, and a bigger share of pasture and grassland lowers it. Unexpectedly, a bigger share of inland wetland area in a country increased threat level, which we believe may be due to the threatened nature of wetlands themselves relative to other natural land cover types. Finally, species occurring in multiple countries are on average less threatened. We believe that large‐scale analysis of current IUCN national red lists as based on their specific categories and criteria may particularly inform the development of coordinated regional or larger‐scale management strategies. In this case, we advocate for a coordinated EU protection and restoration strategy particularly aimed at central European orchids and those occurring in wetland area.

No MeSH data available.


Average threat level (quantified from national and regional red lists: 0 least concern, 1 near threat/rare/data deficient, 2 vulnerable, 3 endangered, 4 critically endangered, 5 regionally extinct) of orchid species in four different regions of Europe (with significant differences calculated with log‐transformed values in the model).
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ece32363-fig-0001: Average threat level (quantified from national and regional red lists: 0 least concern, 1 near threat/rare/data deficient, 2 vulnerable, 3 endangered, 4 critically endangered, 5 regionally extinct) of orchid species in four different regions of Europe (with significant differences calculated with log‐transformed values in the model).

Mentions: External factors strongly determined the threat level (Table 2). When we divided Europe into four regions, region exerted a significant impact on threat (χ2 = 388.81; df = 3; P < 0.0001). Different geographic regions of Europe differed by their orchids’ threat level: The highest was in central Europe, followed by the Atlantic, followed by northern Europe. The lowest threat level was in southern Europe (Fig. 1). The number of countries an orchid was found also exerted a significant impact (χ2 = 52.08; df = 3; P < 0.0001), with increasing number of countries contributing to lower risk level.


Factors influencing IUCN threat levels to orchids across Europe on the basis of national red lists
Average threat level (quantified from national and regional red lists: 0 least concern, 1 near threat/rare/data deficient, 2 vulnerable, 3 endangered, 4 critically endangered, 5 regionally extinct) of orchid species in four different regions of Europe (with significant differences calculated with log‐transformed values in the model).
© Copyright Policy - creativeCommonsBy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5016646&req=5

ece32363-fig-0001: Average threat level (quantified from national and regional red lists: 0 least concern, 1 near threat/rare/data deficient, 2 vulnerable, 3 endangered, 4 critically endangered, 5 regionally extinct) of orchid species in four different regions of Europe (with significant differences calculated with log‐transformed values in the model).
Mentions: External factors strongly determined the threat level (Table 2). When we divided Europe into four regions, region exerted a significant impact on threat (χ2 = 388.81; df = 3; P < 0.0001). Different geographic regions of Europe differed by their orchids’ threat level: The highest was in central Europe, followed by the Atlantic, followed by northern Europe. The lowest threat level was in southern Europe (Fig. 1). The number of countries an orchid was found also exerted a significant impact (χ2 = 52.08; df = 3; P < 0.0001), with increasing number of countries contributing to lower risk level.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

The red list has become a ubiquitous tool in the conservation of species. We analyzed contemporary trends in the threat levels of European orchids, in total 166 species characterized in 27 national red lists, in relation to their reproductive biology and growth form, distribution area, and land cover where they occur. We found that species in central Europe are more threatened than those in the northern, southern, or Atlantic parts of Europe, while species were least threatened in southern Europe. Nectarless and tuberous species are significantly more threatened than nectariferous and rhizomatous taxa. Land cover (ratios of artificial land cover, area of pastures and grasslands, forests and inland wetlands) also significantly impacted the threat level. A bigger share of artificial land cover increases threat, and a bigger share of pasture and grassland lowers it. Unexpectedly, a bigger share of inland wetland area in a country increased threat level, which we believe may be due to the threatened nature of wetlands themselves relative to other natural land cover types. Finally, species occurring in multiple countries are on average less threatened. We believe that large&#8208;scale analysis of current IUCN national red lists as based on their specific categories and criteria may particularly inform the development of coordinated regional or larger&#8208;scale management strategies. In this case, we advocate for a coordinated EU protection and restoration strategy particularly aimed at central European orchids and those occurring in wetland area.

No MeSH data available.