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Breeding phenology in Rana temporaria . Local variation is due to pond temperature and population size

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Frog breeding phenology in temperate zones is usually compared to progress of spring temperatures at a regional scale. However, local populations may differ substantially in phenology. To understand this, local climate and other aspects must be studied. In this study, breeding phenology of the common frog, Rana temporaria, in a set of ponds in southern Sweden is analyzed. There was within year a variation of up to 3 weeks in start of breeding among local populations. Water temperature was measured in the ponds, and breeding tended to be earlier in warmer ponds (surprise!). Breeding was also earlier in ponds with a large breeding congregation. Alternative reasons for these patterns are suggested and discussed. There was a large residual variation. The common frog has a wide range of acceptable wintering sites, and I hypothesize that the particular choice by a local population may explain part of this residual variation.

No MeSH data available.


Breeding phenology for all ponds 1990–2015. Vertical histograms show number of ponds in respective year. Bars show average date for year.
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ece32356-fig-0003: Breeding phenology for all ponds 1990–2015. Vertical histograms show number of ponds in respective year. Bars show average date for year.

Mentions: There were strong pond and year effects on breeding time (2‐factor ANOVA; year: df = 25, F = 89.0, P < 0.0012; pond: df = 149, F = 6.73, P < 0.001) (Fig. 3). This result is based on all monitored ponds since 1990. It is also obvious for a subset; those ponds where loggers were used in 2011–2015 (Fig. 4).


Breeding phenology in Rana temporaria . Local variation is due to pond temperature and population size
Breeding phenology for all ponds 1990–2015. Vertical histograms show number of ponds in respective year. Bars show average date for year.
© Copyright Policy - creativeCommonsBy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5016643&req=5

ece32356-fig-0003: Breeding phenology for all ponds 1990–2015. Vertical histograms show number of ponds in respective year. Bars show average date for year.
Mentions: There were strong pond and year effects on breeding time (2‐factor ANOVA; year: df = 25, F = 89.0, P < 0.0012; pond: df = 149, F = 6.73, P < 0.001) (Fig. 3). This result is based on all monitored ponds since 1990. It is also obvious for a subset; those ponds where loggers were used in 2011–2015 (Fig. 4).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Frog breeding phenology in temperate zones is usually compared to progress of spring temperatures at a regional scale. However, local populations may differ substantially in phenology. To understand this, local climate and other aspects must be studied. In this study, breeding phenology of the common frog, Rana temporaria, in a set of ponds in southern Sweden is analyzed. There was within year a variation of up to 3&nbsp;weeks in start of breeding among local populations. Water temperature was measured in the ponds, and breeding tended to be earlier in warmer ponds (surprise!). Breeding was also earlier in ponds with a large breeding congregation. Alternative reasons for these patterns are suggested and discussed. There was a large residual variation. The common frog has a wide range of acceptable wintering sites, and I hypothesize that the particular choice by a local population may explain part of this residual variation.

No MeSH data available.