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Breeding phenology in Rana temporaria . Local variation is due to pond temperature and population size

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Frog breeding phenology in temperate zones is usually compared to progress of spring temperatures at a regional scale. However, local populations may differ substantially in phenology. To understand this, local climate and other aspects must be studied. In this study, breeding phenology of the common frog, Rana temporaria, in a set of ponds in southern Sweden is analyzed. There was within year a variation of up to 3 weeks in start of breeding among local populations. Water temperature was measured in the ponds, and breeding tended to be earlier in warmer ponds (surprise!). Breeding was also earlier in ponds with a large breeding congregation. Alternative reasons for these patterns are suggested and discussed. There was a large residual variation. The common frog has a wide range of acceptable wintering sites, and I hypothesize that the particular choice by a local population may explain part of this residual variation.

No MeSH data available.


Map of Skåne in south Sweden with study ponds. Filled ponds are those 19 where spring water temperature was monitored with loggers in 2011–2015. Three pair of ponds overlap closely and are difficult to separate. The altitude of the ponds is from 20 m.a.s.l (55 m. for those with temperature monitors) to 180 m. Ovals group ponds close and at similar altitude accounted for in Figure 6. The respective altitude span is shown.
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ece32356-fig-0002: Map of Skåne in south Sweden with study ponds. Filled ponds are those 19 where spring water temperature was monitored with loggers in 2011–2015. Three pair of ponds overlap closely and are difficult to separate. The altitude of the ponds is from 20 m.a.s.l (55 m. for those with temperature monitors) to 180 m. Ovals group ponds close and at similar altitude accounted for in Figure 6. The respective altitude span is shown.

Mentions: Since 1990 I have monitored breeding time for the common frog R. temporaria L. (Fig. 1) in a varying number of ponds in southern Sweden (the province Skåne). The furthest distance between ponds has been 60 km (Fig. 2). Over the years, the number of ponds has varied between 29 and 84. For details until 2010, see Loman (2014). From 2011 until 2015, 29 of those 30 monitored in 2010 have remained in the monitoring scheme.


Breeding phenology in Rana temporaria . Local variation is due to pond temperature and population size
Map of Skåne in south Sweden with study ponds. Filled ponds are those 19 where spring water temperature was monitored with loggers in 2011–2015. Three pair of ponds overlap closely and are difficult to separate. The altitude of the ponds is from 20 m.a.s.l (55 m. for those with temperature monitors) to 180 m. Ovals group ponds close and at similar altitude accounted for in Figure 6. The respective altitude span is shown.
© Copyright Policy - creativeCommonsBy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5016643&req=5

ece32356-fig-0002: Map of Skåne in south Sweden with study ponds. Filled ponds are those 19 where spring water temperature was monitored with loggers in 2011–2015. Three pair of ponds overlap closely and are difficult to separate. The altitude of the ponds is from 20 m.a.s.l (55 m. for those with temperature monitors) to 180 m. Ovals group ponds close and at similar altitude accounted for in Figure 6. The respective altitude span is shown.
Mentions: Since 1990 I have monitored breeding time for the common frog R. temporaria L. (Fig. 1) in a varying number of ponds in southern Sweden (the province Skåne). The furthest distance between ponds has been 60 km (Fig. 2). Over the years, the number of ponds has varied between 29 and 84. For details until 2010, see Loman (2014). From 2011 until 2015, 29 of those 30 monitored in 2010 have remained in the monitoring scheme.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Frog breeding phenology in temperate zones is usually compared to progress of spring temperatures at a regional scale. However, local populations may differ substantially in phenology. To understand this, local climate and other aspects must be studied. In this study, breeding phenology of the common frog, Rana temporaria, in a set of ponds in southern Sweden is analyzed. There was within year a variation of up to 3 weeks in start of breeding among local populations. Water temperature was measured in the ponds, and breeding tended to be earlier in warmer ponds (surprise!). Breeding was also earlier in ponds with a large breeding congregation. Alternative reasons for these patterns are suggested and discussed. There was a large residual variation. The common frog has a wide range of acceptable wintering sites, and I hypothesize that the particular choice by a local population may explain part of this residual variation.

No MeSH data available.