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Discovery, Molecular Mechanisms, and Industrial Applications of Cold-Active Enzymes

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Cold-active enzymes constitute an attractive resource for biotechnological applications. Their high catalytic activity at temperatures below 25°C makes them excellent biocatalysts that eliminate the need of heating processes hampering the quality, sustainability, and cost-effectiveness of industrial production. Here we provide a review of the isolation and characterization of novel cold-active enzymes from microorganisms inhabiting different environments, including a revision of the latest techniques that have been used for accomplishing these paramount tasks. We address the progress made in the overexpression and purification of cold-adapted enzymes, the evolutionary and molecular basis of their high activity at low temperatures and the experimental and computational techniques used for their identification, along with protein engineering endeavors based on these observations to improve some of the properties of cold-adapted enzymes to better suit specific applications. We finally focus on examples of the evaluation of their potential use as biocatalysts under conditions that reproduce the challenges imposed by the use of solvents and additives in industrial processes and of the successful use of cold-adapted enzymes in biotechnological and industrial applications.

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Overview of novel strategies for improving the recombinant expression of cold-active enzymes. Currently, the main approaches to produce enzymes at low temperatures include the use of: molecular chaperones, cold-active promoters, fusion partners, and psychrophilic hosts. A combination of the above strategies can also be used.
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Figure 5: Overview of novel strategies for improving the recombinant expression of cold-active enzymes. Currently, the main approaches to produce enzymes at low temperatures include the use of: molecular chaperones, cold-active promoters, fusion partners, and psychrophilic hosts. A combination of the above strategies can also be used.

Mentions: Several strategies have been suggested to promote proper expression and folding of cold-active enzymes expressed in heterologous host, increasing their solubility, activity, and yield. These strategies are summarized in Figure 5 and include the use of: (i) molecular chaperones; (ii) cold-active promoters; (iii) fusion partners; (iv) psychrophilic hosts, and (v) a combination of these strategies.


Discovery, Molecular Mechanisms, and Industrial Applications of Cold-Active Enzymes
Overview of novel strategies for improving the recombinant expression of cold-active enzymes. Currently, the main approaches to produce enzymes at low temperatures include the use of: molecular chaperones, cold-active promoters, fusion partners, and psychrophilic hosts. A combination of the above strategies can also be used.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5016527&req=5

Figure 5: Overview of novel strategies for improving the recombinant expression of cold-active enzymes. Currently, the main approaches to produce enzymes at low temperatures include the use of: molecular chaperones, cold-active promoters, fusion partners, and psychrophilic hosts. A combination of the above strategies can also be used.
Mentions: Several strategies have been suggested to promote proper expression and folding of cold-active enzymes expressed in heterologous host, increasing their solubility, activity, and yield. These strategies are summarized in Figure 5 and include the use of: (i) molecular chaperones; (ii) cold-active promoters; (iii) fusion partners; (iv) psychrophilic hosts, and (v) a combination of these strategies.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Cold-active enzymes constitute an attractive resource for biotechnological applications. Their high catalytic activity at temperatures below 25°C makes them excellent biocatalysts that eliminate the need of heating processes hampering the quality, sustainability, and cost-effectiveness of industrial production. Here we provide a review of the isolation and characterization of novel cold-active enzymes from microorganisms inhabiting different environments, including a revision of the latest techniques that have been used for accomplishing these paramount tasks. We address the progress made in the overexpression and purification of cold-adapted enzymes, the evolutionary and molecular basis of their high activity at low temperatures and the experimental and computational techniques used for their identification, along with protein engineering endeavors based on these observations to improve some of the properties of cold-adapted enzymes to better suit specific applications. We finally focus on examples of the evaluation of their potential use as biocatalysts under conditions that reproduce the challenges imposed by the use of solvents and additives in industrial processes and of the successful use of cold-adapted enzymes in biotechnological and industrial applications.

No MeSH data available.