Limits...
Discovery, Molecular Mechanisms, and Industrial Applications of Cold-Active Enzymes

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Cold-active enzymes constitute an attractive resource for biotechnological applications. Their high catalytic activity at temperatures below 25°C makes them excellent biocatalysts that eliminate the need of heating processes hampering the quality, sustainability, and cost-effectiveness of industrial production. Here we provide a review of the isolation and characterization of novel cold-active enzymes from microorganisms inhabiting different environments, including a revision of the latest techniques that have been used for accomplishing these paramount tasks. We address the progress made in the overexpression and purification of cold-adapted enzymes, the evolutionary and molecular basis of their high activity at low temperatures and the experimental and computational techniques used for their identification, along with protein engineering endeavors based on these observations to improve some of the properties of cold-adapted enzymes to better suit specific applications. We finally focus on examples of the evaluation of their potential use as biocatalysts under conditions that reproduce the challenges imposed by the use of solvents and additives in industrial processes and of the successful use of cold-adapted enzymes in biotechnological and industrial applications.

No MeSH data available.


Pie chart showing the distribution of enzymes classes of cold-active enzymes reported in Table 1.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5016527&req=5

Figure 4: Pie chart showing the distribution of enzymes classes of cold-active enzymes reported in Table 1.

Mentions: By far hydrolases were the preferred class for cold-enzyme discovery (Figure 4). Unsurprisingly, cold-adapted hydrolases are the most frequent proteins for which their three-dimensional structures have been solved (Table 2). Among them, lipases and esterases were the favorites (18 and 20% of enzymes in Table 1, respectively), which is the same case reported recently for cold-active enzymes obtained by metagenomic approaches where all the proteins were hydrolases (30% lipases and 30% esterases) except one (Vester et al., 2015).


Discovery, Molecular Mechanisms, and Industrial Applications of Cold-Active Enzymes
Pie chart showing the distribution of enzymes classes of cold-active enzymes reported in Table 1.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5016527&req=5

Figure 4: Pie chart showing the distribution of enzymes classes of cold-active enzymes reported in Table 1.
Mentions: By far hydrolases were the preferred class for cold-enzyme discovery (Figure 4). Unsurprisingly, cold-adapted hydrolases are the most frequent proteins for which their three-dimensional structures have been solved (Table 2). Among them, lipases and esterases were the favorites (18 and 20% of enzymes in Table 1, respectively), which is the same case reported recently for cold-active enzymes obtained by metagenomic approaches where all the proteins were hydrolases (30% lipases and 30% esterases) except one (Vester et al., 2015).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Cold-active enzymes constitute an attractive resource for biotechnological applications. Their high catalytic activity at temperatures below 25°C makes them excellent biocatalysts that eliminate the need of heating processes hampering the quality, sustainability, and cost-effectiveness of industrial production. Here we provide a review of the isolation and characterization of novel cold-active enzymes from microorganisms inhabiting different environments, including a revision of the latest techniques that have been used for accomplishing these paramount tasks. We address the progress made in the overexpression and purification of cold-adapted enzymes, the evolutionary and molecular basis of their high activity at low temperatures and the experimental and computational techniques used for their identification, along with protein engineering endeavors based on these observations to improve some of the properties of cold-adapted enzymes to better suit specific applications. We finally focus on examples of the evaluation of their potential use as biocatalysts under conditions that reproduce the challenges imposed by the use of solvents and additives in industrial processes and of the successful use of cold-adapted enzymes in biotechnological and industrial applications.

No MeSH data available.