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Discovery, Molecular Mechanisms, and Industrial Applications of Cold-Active Enzymes

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Cold-active enzymes constitute an attractive resource for biotechnological applications. Their high catalytic activity at temperatures below 25°C makes them excellent biocatalysts that eliminate the need of heating processes hampering the quality, sustainability, and cost-effectiveness of industrial production. Here we provide a review of the isolation and characterization of novel cold-active enzymes from microorganisms inhabiting different environments, including a revision of the latest techniques that have been used for accomplishing these paramount tasks. We address the progress made in the overexpression and purification of cold-adapted enzymes, the evolutionary and molecular basis of their high activity at low temperatures and the experimental and computational techniques used for their identification, along with protein engineering endeavors based on these observations to improve some of the properties of cold-adapted enzymes to better suit specific applications. We finally focus on examples of the evaluation of their potential use as biocatalysts under conditions that reproduce the challenges imposed by the use of solvents and additives in industrial processes and of the successful use of cold-adapted enzymes in biotechnological and industrial applications.

No MeSH data available.


Pie chart showing the distribution of heterologous hosts used for the expression of cold-active enzymes reported in Table 1.
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Figure 2: Pie chart showing the distribution of heterologous hosts used for the expression of cold-active enzymes reported in Table 1.

Mentions: The selected expression host was by far E. coli (Figure 2). Different genotypes were used, but in most cases BL21 (DE3) was the preferred strain. As we will see below, only one of these enzymes was expressed in an optimized strain for cold-active enzymes, ArcticExpress. Nevertheless, other expression hosts have been used, such as Halobacteriun sp. for the expression of a cold-adapted hydrolase, and Pichia pastoris, used as the expression host for 9 proteins including various fungal enzymes. Other expression hosts that were rarely used are shown in Table 1.


Discovery, Molecular Mechanisms, and Industrial Applications of Cold-Active Enzymes
Pie chart showing the distribution of heterologous hosts used for the expression of cold-active enzymes reported in Table 1.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5016527&req=5

Figure 2: Pie chart showing the distribution of heterologous hosts used for the expression of cold-active enzymes reported in Table 1.
Mentions: The selected expression host was by far E. coli (Figure 2). Different genotypes were used, but in most cases BL21 (DE3) was the preferred strain. As we will see below, only one of these enzymes was expressed in an optimized strain for cold-active enzymes, ArcticExpress. Nevertheless, other expression hosts have been used, such as Halobacteriun sp. for the expression of a cold-adapted hydrolase, and Pichia pastoris, used as the expression host for 9 proteins including various fungal enzymes. Other expression hosts that were rarely used are shown in Table 1.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Cold-active enzymes constitute an attractive resource for biotechnological applications. Their high catalytic activity at temperatures below 25°C makes them excellent biocatalysts that eliminate the need of heating processes hampering the quality, sustainability, and cost-effectiveness of industrial production. Here we provide a review of the isolation and characterization of novel cold-active enzymes from microorganisms inhabiting different environments, including a revision of the latest techniques that have been used for accomplishing these paramount tasks. We address the progress made in the overexpression and purification of cold-adapted enzymes, the evolutionary and molecular basis of their high activity at low temperatures and the experimental and computational techniques used for their identification, along with protein engineering endeavors based on these observations to improve some of the properties of cold-adapted enzymes to better suit specific applications. We finally focus on examples of the evaluation of their potential use as biocatalysts under conditions that reproduce the challenges imposed by the use of solvents and additives in industrial processes and of the successful use of cold-adapted enzymes in biotechnological and industrial applications.

No MeSH data available.