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Plasma Macrophage Migration Inhibitor Factor Is Elevated in Response to Myocardial Ischemia

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ABSTRACT

Background: Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a key regulator of inflammatory responses, including in the heart. Plasma MIF is elevated early in the course of acute myocardial infarction. In this study, we hypothesized that plasma MIF may also be increased in acute myocardial ischemia.

Methods and results: Patients undergoing cardiac stress test (stress nuclear myocardial perfusion scan or stress echocardiography) were recruited. Twenty‐two patients had a stress test indicative of myocardial ischemia and were compared with 62 patients who had a negative stress test. Plasma MIF was measured by ELISA before and after the stress test. MIF was also measured in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease before and after exercise causing claudication. Gene and protein expression of MIF was measured in mouse cardiac and skeletal muscle tissue by real‐time polymerase chain reaction and western blot, respectively. Plasma MIF was elevated at 5 and 15 minutes after stress (relative to before stress) in patients with a positive test, compared with those with a negative test. In contrast, high‐sensitivity troponin T and C‐reactive protein were not altered after stress in either group. MIF was not altered after exercise in PAOD patients, despite the occurrence of claudication, suggesting that plasma MIF is not a marker for skeletal muscle ischemia. This may be explained by a lower gene and protein expression of MIF in skeletal muscle than the heart.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that plasma MIF is an early marker for acute myocardial ischemia.

No MeSH data available.


MIF levels at baseline, 5 and 15 minutes after cardiac stress in the positive group (A, n=22) and the negative group (B, n=62). Percent change of MIF at 5 minutes (C) and 15 minutes (D) after cardiac stress relative to baseline in the positive and the negative group. Data are expressed as mean±SEM. *P<0.05; **P<0.01; ***P<0.001 vs baseline or the negative group. MIF indicates macrophage migration inhibitory factor.
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jah31593-fig-0002: MIF levels at baseline, 5 and 15 minutes after cardiac stress in the positive group (A, n=22) and the negative group (B, n=62). Percent change of MIF at 5 minutes (C) and 15 minutes (D) after cardiac stress relative to baseline in the positive and the negative group. Data are expressed as mean±SEM. *P<0.05; **P<0.01; ***P<0.001 vs baseline or the negative group. MIF indicates macrophage migration inhibitory factor.

Mentions: Baseline MIF was comparable between groups (Figure 2A and 2B). MIF levels at 5 and 15 minutes after cardiac stress were significantly elevated compared to baseline values in the positive group (Figure 2A), but not in the negative group (Figure 2B). At 5 minutes after stress, MIF was increased by 39.9% in the positive group, compared to −0.3% in the negative group (Figure 2C; P<0.001). At 15 minutes after stress, MIF was increased by 22.1% in the positive group compared to −8.4% in the negative group (Figure 2D; P<0.001). The association between myocardial ischemia and change of MIF levels analyzed by univariate general linear model was not altered after adjustment for baseline characteristics (age, smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and family history of CVD).


Plasma Macrophage Migration Inhibitor Factor Is Elevated in Response to Myocardial Ischemia
MIF levels at baseline, 5 and 15 minutes after cardiac stress in the positive group (A, n=22) and the negative group (B, n=62). Percent change of MIF at 5 minutes (C) and 15 minutes (D) after cardiac stress relative to baseline in the positive and the negative group. Data are expressed as mean±SEM. *P<0.05; **P<0.01; ***P<0.001 vs baseline or the negative group. MIF indicates macrophage migration inhibitory factor.
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jah31593-fig-0002: MIF levels at baseline, 5 and 15 minutes after cardiac stress in the positive group (A, n=22) and the negative group (B, n=62). Percent change of MIF at 5 minutes (C) and 15 minutes (D) after cardiac stress relative to baseline in the positive and the negative group. Data are expressed as mean±SEM. *P<0.05; **P<0.01; ***P<0.001 vs baseline or the negative group. MIF indicates macrophage migration inhibitory factor.
Mentions: Baseline MIF was comparable between groups (Figure 2A and 2B). MIF levels at 5 and 15 minutes after cardiac stress were significantly elevated compared to baseline values in the positive group (Figure 2A), but not in the negative group (Figure 2B). At 5 minutes after stress, MIF was increased by 39.9% in the positive group, compared to −0.3% in the negative group (Figure 2C; P<0.001). At 15 minutes after stress, MIF was increased by 22.1% in the positive group compared to −8.4% in the negative group (Figure 2D; P<0.001). The association between myocardial ischemia and change of MIF levels analyzed by univariate general linear model was not altered after adjustment for baseline characteristics (age, smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and family history of CVD).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background: Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a key regulator of inflammatory responses, including in the heart. Plasma MIF is elevated early in the course of acute myocardial infarction. In this study, we hypothesized that plasma MIF may also be increased in acute myocardial ischemia.

Methods and results: Patients undergoing cardiac stress test (stress nuclear myocardial perfusion scan or stress echocardiography) were recruited. Twenty&#8208;two patients had a stress test indicative of myocardial ischemia and were compared with 62 patients who had a negative stress test. Plasma MIF was measured by ELISA before and after the stress test. MIF was also measured in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease before and after exercise causing claudication. Gene and protein expression of MIF was measured in mouse cardiac and skeletal muscle tissue by real&#8208;time polymerase chain reaction and western blot, respectively. Plasma MIF was elevated at 5 and 15&nbsp;minutes after stress (relative to before stress) in patients with a positive test, compared with those with a negative test. In contrast, high&#8208;sensitivity troponin T and C&#8208;reactive protein were not altered after stress in either group. MIF was not altered after exercise in PAOD patients, despite the occurrence of claudication, suggesting that plasma MIF is not a marker for skeletal muscle ischemia. This may be explained by a lower gene and protein expression of MIF in skeletal muscle than the heart.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that plasma MIF is an early marker for acute myocardial ischemia.

No MeSH data available.