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Impact of Hemoglobin Levels and Anemia on Mortality in Acute Stroke: Analysis of UK Regional Registry Data, Systematic Review, and Meta ‐ Analysis

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background: The impact of hemoglobin levels and anemia on stroke mortality remains controversial. We aimed to systematically assess this association and quantify the evidence.

Methods and results: We analyzed data from a cohort of 8013 stroke patients (mean±SD, 77.81±11.83 years) consecutively admitted over 11 years (January 2003 to May 2015) using a UK Regional Stroke Register. The impact of hemoglobin levels and anemia on mortality was assessed by sex‐specific values at different time points (7 and 14 days; 1, 3, and 6 months; 1 year) using multiple regression models controlling for confounders. Anemia was present in 24.5% of the cohort on admission and was associated with increased odds of mortality at most of the time points examined up to 1 year following stroke. The association was less consistent for men with hemorrhagic stroke. Elevated hemoglobin was also associated with increased mortality, mainly within the first month. We then conducted a systematic review using the Embase and Medline databases. Twenty studies met the inclusion criteria. When combined with the cohort from the current study, the pooled population had 29 943 patients with stroke. The evidence base was quantified in a meta‐analysis. Anemia on admission was found to be associated with an increased risk of mortality in both ischemic stroke (8 studies; odds ratio 1.97 [95% CI 1.57–2.47]) and hemorrhagic stroke (4 studies; odds ratio 1.46 [95% CI 1.23–1.74]).

Conclusions: Strong evidence suggests that patients with anemia have increased mortality with stroke. Targeted interventions in this patient population may improve outcomes and require further evaluation.

No MeSH data available.


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Funnel plot of odds ratios from studies analyzing the impact of anemia at admission on mortality in ischemic stroke.
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jah31650-fig-0007: Funnel plot of odds ratios from studies analyzing the impact of anemia at admission on mortality in ischemic stroke.

Mentions: Meta‐analyses of pooled results showed that anemia is associated with an increased risk of mortality in ischemic stroke (pooled OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.57–2.47) (Figure 5).We also found a significant association for the evaluation of anemia and mortality in hemorrhagic stroke, albeit at a lower magnitude of association (OR 1.46, 95% 1.23–1.74) (Figure 6).The number of studies providing ORs for the relationship between elevated hemoglobin and stroke mortality was insufficient for a meta‐analysis to be conducted. Although available data suggest that elevated hemoglobin predicts short‐term mortality in ischemic stroke, findings are less consistent for hemorrhagic stroke (Table 7). The funnel plot depicting ORs for mortality in anemic ischemic stroke patients shows asymmetry (Figure 7), with an underrepresentation of studies on the left side that we would typically expect to consist of those reporting no significant harm in the relationship between anemia and stroke mortality. We encountered 5 such studies that reported no significant association in our systematic review that we could not incorporate into the meta‐analysis because ORs were not given, causing asymmetry in the funnel plot.


Impact of Hemoglobin Levels and Anemia on Mortality in Acute Stroke: Analysis of UK Regional Registry Data, Systematic Review, and Meta ‐ Analysis
Funnel plot of odds ratios from studies analyzing the impact of anemia at admission on mortality in ischemic stroke.
© Copyright Policy - creativeCommonsBy-nc-nd
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5015269&req=5

jah31650-fig-0007: Funnel plot of odds ratios from studies analyzing the impact of anemia at admission on mortality in ischemic stroke.
Mentions: Meta‐analyses of pooled results showed that anemia is associated with an increased risk of mortality in ischemic stroke (pooled OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.57–2.47) (Figure 5).We also found a significant association for the evaluation of anemia and mortality in hemorrhagic stroke, albeit at a lower magnitude of association (OR 1.46, 95% 1.23–1.74) (Figure 6).The number of studies providing ORs for the relationship between elevated hemoglobin and stroke mortality was insufficient for a meta‐analysis to be conducted. Although available data suggest that elevated hemoglobin predicts short‐term mortality in ischemic stroke, findings are less consistent for hemorrhagic stroke (Table 7). The funnel plot depicting ORs for mortality in anemic ischemic stroke patients shows asymmetry (Figure 7), with an underrepresentation of studies on the left side that we would typically expect to consist of those reporting no significant harm in the relationship between anemia and stroke mortality. We encountered 5 such studies that reported no significant association in our systematic review that we could not incorporate into the meta‐analysis because ORs were not given, causing asymmetry in the funnel plot.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background: The impact of hemoglobin levels and anemia on stroke mortality remains controversial. We aimed to systematically assess this association and quantify the evidence.

Methods and results: We analyzed data from a cohort of 8013 stroke patients (mean±SD, 77.81±11.83 years) consecutively admitted over 11 years (January 2003 to May 2015) using a UK Regional Stroke Register. The impact of hemoglobin levels and anemia on mortality was assessed by sex‐specific values at different time points (7 and 14 days; 1, 3, and 6 months; 1 year) using multiple regression models controlling for confounders. Anemia was present in 24.5% of the cohort on admission and was associated with increased odds of mortality at most of the time points examined up to 1 year following stroke. The association was less consistent for men with hemorrhagic stroke. Elevated hemoglobin was also associated with increased mortality, mainly within the first month. We then conducted a systematic review using the Embase and Medline databases. Twenty studies met the inclusion criteria. When combined with the cohort from the current study, the pooled population had 29 943 patients with stroke. The evidence base was quantified in a meta‐analysis. Anemia on admission was found to be associated with an increased risk of mortality in both ischemic stroke (8 studies; odds ratio 1.97 [95% CI 1.57–2.47]) and hemorrhagic stroke (4 studies; odds ratio 1.46 [95% CI 1.23–1.74]).

Conclusions: Strong evidence suggests that patients with anemia have increased mortality with stroke. Targeted interventions in this patient population may improve outcomes and require further evaluation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus