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Bile components and lecithin supplemented to plant based diets do not diminish diet related intestinal inflammation in Atlantic salmon

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background: The present study was undertaken to gain knowledge on the role of bile components and lecithin on development of aberrations in digestive functions which seemingly have increased in Atlantic salmon in parallel with the increased use of plant ingredients in fish feed. Post smolt Atlantic salmon were fed for 77 days one of three basal diets: a high fish meal diet (HFM), a low fishmeal diet (LFM), or a diet with high protein soybean meal (HPS). Five additional diets were made from the LFM diet by supplementing with: purified taurocholate (1.8 %), bovine bile salt (1.8 %), taurine (0.4 %), lecithin (1.5 %), or a mix of supplements (suppl mix) containing taurocholate (1.8 %), cholesterol (1.5 %) and lecithin (0.4 %). Two additional diets were made from the HPS diet by supplementing with: bovine bile salt (1.8 %) or the suppl mix. Body and intestinal weights were recorded, and blood, bile, intestinal tissues and digesta were sampled for evaluation of growth, nutrient metabolism and intestinal structure and function.

Results: In comparison with fish fed the HFM diet fish fed the LFM and HPS diets grew less and showed reduced plasma bile salt and cholesterol levels. Histological examination of the distal intestine showed signs of enteritis in both LFM and HPS diet groups, though more pronounced in the HPS diet group. The HPS diet reduced digesta dry matter and capacity of leucine amino peptidase in the distal intestine. None of the dietary supplements improved endpoints regarding fish performance, gut function or inflammation in the distal intestine. Some endpoints rather indicated negative effects.

Conclusions: Dietary supplementation with bile components or lecithin in general did not improve endpoints regarding performance or gut health in Atlantic salmon, in clear contrast to what has been previously reported for rainbow trout. Follow-up studies are needed to clarify if lower levels of bile salts and cholesterol may give different and beneficial effects, or if other supplements, and other combinations of supplements might prevent or ameliorate inflammation in the distal intestine.

No MeSH data available.


Leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) activity in the distal intestinal tissue, expressed as per kg body weight. Values are means with standard errors represented by vertical bars. Different letters denote diet groups that are significantly different
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Fig4: Leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) activity in the distal intestinal tissue, expressed as per kg body weight. Values are means with standard errors represented by vertical bars. Different letters denote diet groups that are significantly different

Mentions: Leucine aminopeptidase activities were analyzed in pyloric and distal intestine tissue and expressed as total activity per kg fish weight. In the PI, no significant effects of basal diet formulation or any of the supplementations were found (data not shown). In the DI, the HPS groups showed lower enzyme activity compared to the HFM and LFM groups (Fig. 4). Groups fed diets with the suppl mix, i.e., both the LFM and HPS groups, showed the lowest activities. Fish fed the diets with bovine bile salt also showed lower enzyme activity compared to the LFM control. Supplementation with either bovine bile salt or suppl mix to the HPS formulation did not result in significant effects regarding this enzyme activity compared to the respective unsupplemented diets.Fig. 4


Bile components and lecithin supplemented to plant based diets do not diminish diet related intestinal inflammation in Atlantic salmon
Leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) activity in the distal intestinal tissue, expressed as per kg body weight. Values are means with standard errors represented by vertical bars. Different letters denote diet groups that are significantly different
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5015236&req=5

Fig4: Leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) activity in the distal intestinal tissue, expressed as per kg body weight. Values are means with standard errors represented by vertical bars. Different letters denote diet groups that are significantly different
Mentions: Leucine aminopeptidase activities were analyzed in pyloric and distal intestine tissue and expressed as total activity per kg fish weight. In the PI, no significant effects of basal diet formulation or any of the supplementations were found (data not shown). In the DI, the HPS groups showed lower enzyme activity compared to the HFM and LFM groups (Fig. 4). Groups fed diets with the suppl mix, i.e., both the LFM and HPS groups, showed the lowest activities. Fish fed the diets with bovine bile salt also showed lower enzyme activity compared to the LFM control. Supplementation with either bovine bile salt or suppl mix to the HPS formulation did not result in significant effects regarding this enzyme activity compared to the respective unsupplemented diets.Fig. 4

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background: The present study was undertaken to gain knowledge on the role of bile components and lecithin on development of aberrations in digestive functions which seemingly have increased in Atlantic salmon in parallel with the increased use of plant ingredients in fish feed. Post smolt Atlantic salmon were fed for 77 days one of three basal diets: a high fish meal diet (HFM), a low fishmeal diet (LFM), or a diet with high protein soybean meal (HPS). Five additional diets were made from the LFM diet by supplementing with: purified taurocholate (1.8 %), bovine bile salt (1.8 %), taurine (0.4 %), lecithin (1.5 %), or a mix of supplements (suppl mix) containing taurocholate (1.8 %), cholesterol (1.5 %) and lecithin (0.4 %). Two additional diets were made from the HPS diet by supplementing with: bovine bile salt (1.8 %) or the suppl mix. Body and intestinal weights were recorded, and blood, bile, intestinal tissues and digesta were sampled for evaluation of growth, nutrient metabolism and intestinal structure and function.

Results: In comparison with fish fed the HFM diet fish fed the LFM and HPS diets grew less and showed reduced plasma bile salt and cholesterol levels. Histological examination of the distal intestine showed signs of enteritis in both LFM and HPS diet groups, though more pronounced in the HPS diet group. The HPS diet reduced digesta dry matter and capacity of leucine amino peptidase in the distal intestine. None of the dietary supplements improved endpoints regarding fish performance, gut function or inflammation in the distal intestine. Some endpoints rather indicated negative effects.

Conclusions: Dietary supplementation with bile components or lecithin in general did not improve endpoints regarding performance or gut health in Atlantic salmon, in clear contrast to what has been previously reported for rainbow trout. Follow-up studies are needed to clarify if lower levels of bile salts and cholesterol may give different and beneficial effects, or if other supplements, and other combinations of supplements might prevent or ameliorate inflammation in the distal intestine.

No MeSH data available.