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Bile components and lecithin supplemented to plant based diets do not diminish diet related intestinal inflammation in Atlantic salmon

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background: The present study was undertaken to gain knowledge on the role of bile components and lecithin on development of aberrations in digestive functions which seemingly have increased in Atlantic salmon in parallel with the increased use of plant ingredients in fish feed. Post smolt Atlantic salmon were fed for 77 days one of three basal diets: a high fish meal diet (HFM), a low fishmeal diet (LFM), or a diet with high protein soybean meal (HPS). Five additional diets were made from the LFM diet by supplementing with: purified taurocholate (1.8 %), bovine bile salt (1.8 %), taurine (0.4 %), lecithin (1.5 %), or a mix of supplements (suppl mix) containing taurocholate (1.8 %), cholesterol (1.5 %) and lecithin (0.4 %). Two additional diets were made from the HPS diet by supplementing with: bovine bile salt (1.8 %) or the suppl mix. Body and intestinal weights were recorded, and blood, bile, intestinal tissues and digesta were sampled for evaluation of growth, nutrient metabolism and intestinal structure and function.

Results: In comparison with fish fed the HFM diet fish fed the LFM and HPS diets grew less and showed reduced plasma bile salt and cholesterol levels. Histological examination of the distal intestine showed signs of enteritis in both LFM and HPS diet groups, though more pronounced in the HPS diet group. The HPS diet reduced digesta dry matter and capacity of leucine amino peptidase in the distal intestine. None of the dietary supplements improved endpoints regarding fish performance, gut function or inflammation in the distal intestine. Some endpoints rather indicated negative effects.

Conclusions: Dietary supplementation with bile components or lecithin in general did not improve endpoints regarding performance or gut health in Atlantic salmon, in clear contrast to what has been previously reported for rainbow trout. Follow-up studies are needed to clarify if lower levels of bile salts and cholesterol may give different and beneficial effects, or if other supplements, and other combinations of supplements might prevent or ameliorate inflammation in the distal intestine.

No MeSH data available.


Number of samples in each diet group classified by severity of inflammatory changes in the distal intestine. The P value for the Chi-square test is given
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Fig1: Number of samples in each diet group classified by severity of inflammatory changes in the distal intestine. The P value for the Chi-square test is given

Mentions: Slight to moderate inflammatory changes were observed in several samples. See Fig. 1 for numbers of samples from each treatment classified by severity of changes and Fig. 2 for representative histological images. All fish fed the HFM diet appeared normal. Eight out of ten fish fed the LFM diet appeared normal, whereas 2 fish showed slight changes. Supplementing the LFM diet with taurocholate increased the number of samples with slight changes, whereas supplementing the LFM diet with bovine bile salt or the suppl mix clearly increased the number of samples with moderate changes. Other LFM diets did not significantly affect the number of samples with inflammatory changes, or the severity of changes. Varying degrees of accumulation of eosinophilic material within enterocytes (Fig. 3) were frequently observed in fish fed LFM diets. Fish fed the LFM + taurocholate diet had the highest frequency of eosinophilic inclusions, in 8 out of 10 samples.Fig. 1


Bile components and lecithin supplemented to plant based diets do not diminish diet related intestinal inflammation in Atlantic salmon
Number of samples in each diet group classified by severity of inflammatory changes in the distal intestine. The P value for the Chi-square test is given
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5015236&req=5

Fig1: Number of samples in each diet group classified by severity of inflammatory changes in the distal intestine. The P value for the Chi-square test is given
Mentions: Slight to moderate inflammatory changes were observed in several samples. See Fig. 1 for numbers of samples from each treatment classified by severity of changes and Fig. 2 for representative histological images. All fish fed the HFM diet appeared normal. Eight out of ten fish fed the LFM diet appeared normal, whereas 2 fish showed slight changes. Supplementing the LFM diet with taurocholate increased the number of samples with slight changes, whereas supplementing the LFM diet with bovine bile salt or the suppl mix clearly increased the number of samples with moderate changes. Other LFM diets did not significantly affect the number of samples with inflammatory changes, or the severity of changes. Varying degrees of accumulation of eosinophilic material within enterocytes (Fig. 3) were frequently observed in fish fed LFM diets. Fish fed the LFM + taurocholate diet had the highest frequency of eosinophilic inclusions, in 8 out of 10 samples.Fig. 1

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background: The present study was undertaken to gain knowledge on the role of bile components and lecithin on development of aberrations in digestive functions which seemingly have increased in Atlantic salmon in parallel with the increased use of plant ingredients in fish feed. Post smolt Atlantic salmon were fed for 77 days one of three basal diets: a high fish meal diet (HFM), a low fishmeal diet (LFM), or a diet with high protein soybean meal (HPS). Five additional diets were made from the LFM diet by supplementing with: purified taurocholate (1.8 %), bovine bile salt (1.8 %), taurine (0.4 %), lecithin (1.5 %), or a mix of supplements (suppl mix) containing taurocholate (1.8 %), cholesterol (1.5 %) and lecithin (0.4 %). Two additional diets were made from the HPS diet by supplementing with: bovine bile salt (1.8 %) or the suppl mix. Body and intestinal weights were recorded, and blood, bile, intestinal tissues and digesta were sampled for evaluation of growth, nutrient metabolism and intestinal structure and function.

Results: In comparison with fish fed the HFM diet fish fed the LFM and HPS diets grew less and showed reduced plasma bile salt and cholesterol levels. Histological examination of the distal intestine showed signs of enteritis in both LFM and HPS diet groups, though more pronounced in the HPS diet group. The HPS diet reduced digesta dry matter and capacity of leucine amino peptidase in the distal intestine. None of the dietary supplements improved endpoints regarding fish performance, gut function or inflammation in the distal intestine. Some endpoints rather indicated negative effects.

Conclusions: Dietary supplementation with bile components or lecithin in general did not improve endpoints regarding performance or gut health in Atlantic salmon, in clear contrast to what has been previously reported for rainbow trout. Follow-up studies are needed to clarify if lower levels of bile salts and cholesterol may give different and beneficial effects, or if other supplements, and other combinations of supplements might prevent or ameliorate inflammation in the distal intestine.

No MeSH data available.