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Recent Trends of Summer Convective and Stratiform Precipitation in Mid-Eastern China

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ABSTRACT

Many studies have reported on the trends of precipitation in Mid-Eastern China (EC). However, the trends of convective and stratiform precipitation are still unknown. Here, we examine the trends of summer convective and stratiform precipitation in EC from 2002 to 2012 on the basis of the TRMM observations. Results revealed that the rain frequency (RF) for both convective and stratiform precipitation increased in majority regions of Southern EC (SEC), but decreased in Northwest part of Northern EC (NEC). The decreasing rate of RF for stratiform precipitation in NEC is twice as much as that for convective precipitation, while the increase of convective precipitation in SEC is more evident than stratiform precipitation. The rain rate (RR) exhibited a decreasing trend in most portions of EC for both convective and stratiform precipitation. In SEC, neither PW nor WVT has good ability in explaining the precipitation variability. However, in NEC, PW is closely correlated to convective RF and WVT is more closely related to stratiform RF.

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Area-averaged time series of annual normalized anomalies (%) of rain rate (a,b) and rain frequency (c,d) in SEC and NEC for convective (left panel) and stratiform (right panel) precipitation. Red (blue) dashed lines denote linear trends in NEC (SEC). ‘**’ and ‘*’ denote statistically significant at the 95% and 85% confidence level, respectively.
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f3: Area-averaged time series of annual normalized anomalies (%) of rain rate (a,b) and rain frequency (c,d) in SEC and NEC for convective (left panel) and stratiform (right panel) precipitation. Red (blue) dashed lines denote linear trends in NEC (SEC). ‘**’ and ‘*’ denote statistically significant at the 95% and 85% confidence level, respectively.

Mentions: We further calculated the area-averaged time series of normalized anomalies of RR and RF in SEC and NEC for convective and stratiform precipitation. The results are presented in Fig. 3. Generally, the trends are similar to their corresponding spatial patterns (Fig. 2). The area-averaged RR exhibit a consistent decreasing trend in SEC and NEC for both convective and stratiform precipitation. In NEC, the decreasing trends of RR for convective and stratiform precipitation are much faster than those in SEC, reaching 1.4%/year (confidence level 95%) and 1.2%/year (confidence level 85%), respectively. In contrast, the trends of area-averaged RF show considerable regional differences. In NEC, the decreasing trend amplitude of stratiform RF reaches 3.5%/year, being approximately twice as much as that of convective precipitation (1.6%/year). In SEC, the RF increase of convective and stratiform precipitation reaches 2.6%/year and 2.7%/year, respectively, being much more significant (confidence level 85%) for convective precipitation.


Recent Trends of Summer Convective and Stratiform Precipitation in Mid-Eastern China
Area-averaged time series of annual normalized anomalies (%) of rain rate (a,b) and rain frequency (c,d) in SEC and NEC for convective (left panel) and stratiform (right panel) precipitation. Red (blue) dashed lines denote linear trends in NEC (SEC). ‘**’ and ‘*’ denote statistically significant at the 95% and 85% confidence level, respectively.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5015104&req=5

f3: Area-averaged time series of annual normalized anomalies (%) of rain rate (a,b) and rain frequency (c,d) in SEC and NEC for convective (left panel) and stratiform (right panel) precipitation. Red (blue) dashed lines denote linear trends in NEC (SEC). ‘**’ and ‘*’ denote statistically significant at the 95% and 85% confidence level, respectively.
Mentions: We further calculated the area-averaged time series of normalized anomalies of RR and RF in SEC and NEC for convective and stratiform precipitation. The results are presented in Fig. 3. Generally, the trends are similar to their corresponding spatial patterns (Fig. 2). The area-averaged RR exhibit a consistent decreasing trend in SEC and NEC for both convective and stratiform precipitation. In NEC, the decreasing trends of RR for convective and stratiform precipitation are much faster than those in SEC, reaching 1.4%/year (confidence level 95%) and 1.2%/year (confidence level 85%), respectively. In contrast, the trends of area-averaged RF show considerable regional differences. In NEC, the decreasing trend amplitude of stratiform RF reaches 3.5%/year, being approximately twice as much as that of convective precipitation (1.6%/year). In SEC, the RF increase of convective and stratiform precipitation reaches 2.6%/year and 2.7%/year, respectively, being much more significant (confidence level 85%) for convective precipitation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Many studies have reported on the trends of precipitation in Mid-Eastern China (EC). However, the trends of convective and stratiform precipitation are still unknown. Here, we examine the trends of summer convective and stratiform precipitation in EC from 2002 to 2012 on the basis of the TRMM observations. Results revealed that the rain frequency (RF) for both convective and stratiform precipitation increased in majority regions of Southern EC (SEC), but decreased in Northwest part of Northern EC (NEC). The decreasing rate of RF for stratiform precipitation in NEC is twice as much as that for convective precipitation, while the increase of convective precipitation in SEC is more evident than stratiform precipitation. The rain rate (RR) exhibited a decreasing trend in most portions of EC for both convective and stratiform precipitation. In SEC, neither PW nor WVT has good ability in explaining the precipitation variability. However, in NEC, PW is closely correlated to convective RF and WVT is more closely related to stratiform RF.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus