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Recent Trends of Summer Convective and Stratiform Precipitation in Mid-Eastern China

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ABSTRACT

Many studies have reported on the trends of precipitation in Mid-Eastern China (EC). However, the trends of convective and stratiform precipitation are still unknown. Here, we examine the trends of summer convective and stratiform precipitation in EC from 2002 to 2012 on the basis of the TRMM observations. Results revealed that the rain frequency (RF) for both convective and stratiform precipitation increased in majority regions of Southern EC (SEC), but decreased in Northwest part of Northern EC (NEC). The decreasing rate of RF for stratiform precipitation in NEC is twice as much as that for convective precipitation, while the increase of convective precipitation in SEC is more evident than stratiform precipitation. The rain rate (RR) exhibited a decreasing trend in most portions of EC for both convective and stratiform precipitation. In SEC, neither PW nor WVT has good ability in explaining the precipitation variability. However, in NEC, PW is closely correlated to convective RF and WVT is more closely related to stratiform RF.

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Spatial patterns of trends in normalized rain rate (a,b) and rain frequency(c,d) for convective (left panel) and stratiform (right panel) precipitation at 1° × 1° resolution over EC during summer of 2002 to 2012. Triangle/plus shows the negative/positive trends statistically significant at the 90% confidence level. Maps were generated in NCL42.
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f2: Spatial patterns of trends in normalized rain rate (a,b) and rain frequency(c,d) for convective (left panel) and stratiform (right panel) precipitation at 1° × 1° resolution over EC during summer of 2002 to 2012. Triangle/plus shows the negative/positive trends statistically significant at the 90% confidence level. Maps were generated in NCL42.

Mentions: The trends in normalized anomalies (see Methods) of RR and RF for summer convective and stratiform precipitation during 2002–2012 are shown in Fig. 2. The normalized RR anomalies exhibit a clear decreasing trend in majority regions of NEC, reaching above 4.8% per year. In SEC, a relatively smaller increase trend is found for convective RR, but a much obvious decrease trend for stratiform precipitation. Considerable regional differences are found for the trends of convective and stratiform RF. For example, the RF for convective and stratiform precipitation has decreased by 2.4–4.8% per year in Northwest part of NEC, indicating that these regions have fewer precipitation events over the most recent 11 years. The downward trend is more significant for stratiform than for convective precipitation, with much more regions showing statistical significance at the 90% confidence level. In majority regions of SEC, positive trends are obtained for both convective and stratiform precipitation, but being more significant for convective precipitation. The trends of RF support the previous conclusion known as “South flood and North drought”24 pattern generated by rain gauges, but provide more details in rain types of convective and stratiform precipitation.


Recent Trends of Summer Convective and Stratiform Precipitation in Mid-Eastern China
Spatial patterns of trends in normalized rain rate (a,b) and rain frequency(c,d) for convective (left panel) and stratiform (right panel) precipitation at 1° × 1° resolution over EC during summer of 2002 to 2012. Triangle/plus shows the negative/positive trends statistically significant at the 90% confidence level. Maps were generated in NCL42.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5015104&req=5

f2: Spatial patterns of trends in normalized rain rate (a,b) and rain frequency(c,d) for convective (left panel) and stratiform (right panel) precipitation at 1° × 1° resolution over EC during summer of 2002 to 2012. Triangle/plus shows the negative/positive trends statistically significant at the 90% confidence level. Maps were generated in NCL42.
Mentions: The trends in normalized anomalies (see Methods) of RR and RF for summer convective and stratiform precipitation during 2002–2012 are shown in Fig. 2. The normalized RR anomalies exhibit a clear decreasing trend in majority regions of NEC, reaching above 4.8% per year. In SEC, a relatively smaller increase trend is found for convective RR, but a much obvious decrease trend for stratiform precipitation. Considerable regional differences are found for the trends of convective and stratiform RF. For example, the RF for convective and stratiform precipitation has decreased by 2.4–4.8% per year in Northwest part of NEC, indicating that these regions have fewer precipitation events over the most recent 11 years. The downward trend is more significant for stratiform than for convective precipitation, with much more regions showing statistical significance at the 90% confidence level. In majority regions of SEC, positive trends are obtained for both convective and stratiform precipitation, but being more significant for convective precipitation. The trends of RF support the previous conclusion known as “South flood and North drought”24 pattern generated by rain gauges, but provide more details in rain types of convective and stratiform precipitation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Many studies have reported on the trends of precipitation in Mid-Eastern China (EC). However, the trends of convective and stratiform precipitation are still unknown. Here, we examine the trends of summer convective and stratiform precipitation in EC from 2002 to 2012 on the basis of the TRMM observations. Results revealed that the rain frequency (RF) for both convective and stratiform precipitation increased in majority regions of Southern EC (SEC), but decreased in Northwest part of Northern EC (NEC). The decreasing rate of RF for stratiform precipitation in NEC is twice as much as that for convective precipitation, while the increase of convective precipitation in SEC is more evident than stratiform precipitation. The rain rate (RR) exhibited a decreasing trend in most portions of EC for both convective and stratiform precipitation. In SEC, neither PW nor WVT has good ability in explaining the precipitation variability. However, in NEC, PW is closely correlated to convective RF and WVT is more closely related to stratiform RF.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus