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Genome-wide Identification of TCP Family Transcription Factors from Populus euphratica and Their Involvement in Leaf Shape Regulation

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Higher plants have been shown to experience a juvenile vegetative phase, an adult vegetative phase, and a reproductive phase during its postembryonic development and distinct lateral organ morphologies have been observed at the different development stages. Populus euphratica, commonly known as a desert poplar, has developed heteromorphic leaves during its development. The TCP family genes encode a group of plant-specific transcription factors involved in several aspects of plant development. In particular, TCPs have been shown to influence leaf size and shape in many herbaceous plants. However, whether these functions are conserved in woody plants remains unknown. In the present study, we carried out genome-wide identification of TCP genes in P. euphratica and P. trichocarpa, and 33 and 36 genes encoding putative TCP proteins were found, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of the poplar TCPs together with Arabidopsis TCPs indicated a biased expansion of the TCP gene family via segmental duplications. In addition, our results have also shown a correlation between different expression patterns of several P. euphratica TCP genes and leaf shape variations, indicating their involvement in the regulation of leaf shape development.

No MeSH data available.


Phylogenetic tree of Arabidopsis and Populus TCPs.The phylogenetic tree was built based on multiple alignment of the TCP domain in the TCP proteins using the Neighbor-Joining method with 1000 bootstrap replicates.
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f1: Phylogenetic tree of Arabidopsis and Populus TCPs.The phylogenetic tree was built based on multiple alignment of the TCP domain in the TCP proteins using the Neighbor-Joining method with 1000 bootstrap replicates.

Mentions: In order to elucidate phylogenetic relations among the poplar TCPs, a maximum likelihood (ML) phylogenetic tree was built based on multiple-alignment of the TCP domain sequences of the poplar TCPs and their Arabidopsis homologues. As shown in Fig. 1, the 93 TCPs were classified into two classes, Class I (red) and Class II, where Class II was further divided into two clades, CYC (orange) and CIN (yellow). All Arabidopsis TCPs fell in the same Class or clade as previously reported34, confirming the reliability of our phylogenetic tree. Similar phylogenetic trees were obtained by the minimal evolution, maximal parsimony, neighbour joining methods with minor differences at some branches (Supplementary Figs S2–S4). According to the phylogenetic tree, both poplar species possessed an expanded TCP family with approximate 1.5-fold size compared with Arabidopsis. Interestingly, the expansion in both poplar species was biased, which occurred mainly in Class I and the CYC clade, while the CIN clade remained largely the same size as in Arabidopsis (Table 1).


Genome-wide Identification of TCP Family Transcription Factors from Populus euphratica and Their Involvement in Leaf Shape Regulation
Phylogenetic tree of Arabidopsis and Populus TCPs.The phylogenetic tree was built based on multiple alignment of the TCP domain in the TCP proteins using the Neighbor-Joining method with 1000 bootstrap replicates.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5015053&req=5

f1: Phylogenetic tree of Arabidopsis and Populus TCPs.The phylogenetic tree was built based on multiple alignment of the TCP domain in the TCP proteins using the Neighbor-Joining method with 1000 bootstrap replicates.
Mentions: In order to elucidate phylogenetic relations among the poplar TCPs, a maximum likelihood (ML) phylogenetic tree was built based on multiple-alignment of the TCP domain sequences of the poplar TCPs and their Arabidopsis homologues. As shown in Fig. 1, the 93 TCPs were classified into two classes, Class I (red) and Class II, where Class II was further divided into two clades, CYC (orange) and CIN (yellow). All Arabidopsis TCPs fell in the same Class or clade as previously reported34, confirming the reliability of our phylogenetic tree. Similar phylogenetic trees were obtained by the minimal evolution, maximal parsimony, neighbour joining methods with minor differences at some branches (Supplementary Figs S2–S4). According to the phylogenetic tree, both poplar species possessed an expanded TCP family with approximate 1.5-fold size compared with Arabidopsis. Interestingly, the expansion in both poplar species was biased, which occurred mainly in Class I and the CYC clade, while the CIN clade remained largely the same size as in Arabidopsis (Table 1).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Higher plants have been shown to experience a juvenile vegetative phase, an adult vegetative phase, and a reproductive phase during its postembryonic development and distinct lateral organ morphologies have been observed at the different development stages. Populus euphratica, commonly known as a desert poplar, has developed heteromorphic leaves during its development. The TCP family genes encode a group of plant-specific transcription factors involved in several aspects of plant development. In particular, TCPs have been shown to influence leaf size and shape in many herbaceous plants. However, whether these functions are conserved in woody plants remains unknown. In the present study, we carried out genome-wide identification of TCP genes in P. euphratica and P. trichocarpa, and 33 and 36 genes encoding putative TCP proteins were found, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of the poplar TCPs together with Arabidopsis TCPs indicated a biased expansion of the TCP gene family via segmental duplications. In addition, our results have also shown a correlation between different expression patterns of several P. euphratica TCP genes and leaf shape variations, indicating their involvement in the regulation of leaf shape development.

No MeSH data available.