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A Closed Loop Brain-machine Interface for Epilepsy Control Using Dorsal Column Electrical Stimulation

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Although electrical neurostimulation has been proposed as an alternative treatment for drug-resistant cases of epilepsy, current procedures such as deep brain stimulation, vagus, and trigeminal nerve stimulation are effective only in a fraction of the patients. Here we demonstrate a closed loop brain-machine interface that delivers electrical stimulation to the dorsal column (DCS) of the spinal cord to suppress epileptic seizures. Rats were implanted with cortical recording microelectrodes and spinal cord stimulating electrodes, and then injected with pentylenetetrazole to induce seizures. Seizures were detected in real time from cortical local field potentials, after which DCS was applied. This method decreased seizure episode frequency by 44% and seizure duration by 38%. We argue that the therapeutic effect of DCS is related to modulation of cortical theta waves, and propose that this closed-loop interface has the potential to become an effective and semi-invasive treatment for refractory epilepsy and other neurological disorders.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Closed loop brain-machine interface setup.(A) Local Field Potentials recorded from primary somatosensory cortex are analyzed in real time. High amplitude signals trigger the microstimulator (Master8) which will deliver an electrical pattern to the dorsal columns (DCS). (B) Recording electrodes placement44. (C) Stimulating electrodes placement (resting in the epidural space between the vertebrae and the spinal cord). (D) Raw LFP recording with multiple crossings of pre-established threshold (red dashed lines). The yellow bars indicate DCS delivered whenever the threshold was crossed. Bottom: Spectrogram depicting a seizure episode.
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f1: Closed loop brain-machine interface setup.(A) Local Field Potentials recorded from primary somatosensory cortex are analyzed in real time. High amplitude signals trigger the microstimulator (Master8) which will deliver an electrical pattern to the dorsal columns (DCS). (B) Recording electrodes placement44. (C) Stimulating electrodes placement (resting in the epidural space between the vertebrae and the spinal cord). (D) Raw LFP recording with multiple crossings of pre-established threshold (red dashed lines). The yellow bars indicate DCS delivered whenever the threshold was crossed. Bottom: Spectrogram depicting a seizure episode.

Mentions: Here we developed a closed-loop brain-machine interface (BMI) that utilized chronic cortical implants to detect seizure activity in awake, freely moving PTZ-treated rats (Fig. 1A,B). This BMI also allowed DCS to be delivered using the method we previously developed to suppress Parkinson’s symptoms in rodents13. Overall, we observed that this closed-loop BMI substantially reduced the frequency and duration of seizure episodes.


A Closed Loop Brain-machine Interface for Epilepsy Control Using Dorsal Column Electrical Stimulation
Closed loop brain-machine interface setup.(A) Local Field Potentials recorded from primary somatosensory cortex are analyzed in real time. High amplitude signals trigger the microstimulator (Master8) which will deliver an electrical pattern to the dorsal columns (DCS). (B) Recording electrodes placement44. (C) Stimulating electrodes placement (resting in the epidural space between the vertebrae and the spinal cord). (D) Raw LFP recording with multiple crossings of pre-established threshold (red dashed lines). The yellow bars indicate DCS delivered whenever the threshold was crossed. Bottom: Spectrogram depicting a seizure episode.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5015048&req=5

f1: Closed loop brain-machine interface setup.(A) Local Field Potentials recorded from primary somatosensory cortex are analyzed in real time. High amplitude signals trigger the microstimulator (Master8) which will deliver an electrical pattern to the dorsal columns (DCS). (B) Recording electrodes placement44. (C) Stimulating electrodes placement (resting in the epidural space between the vertebrae and the spinal cord). (D) Raw LFP recording with multiple crossings of pre-established threshold (red dashed lines). The yellow bars indicate DCS delivered whenever the threshold was crossed. Bottom: Spectrogram depicting a seizure episode.
Mentions: Here we developed a closed-loop brain-machine interface (BMI) that utilized chronic cortical implants to detect seizure activity in awake, freely moving PTZ-treated rats (Fig. 1A,B). This BMI also allowed DCS to be delivered using the method we previously developed to suppress Parkinson’s symptoms in rodents13. Overall, we observed that this closed-loop BMI substantially reduced the frequency and duration of seizure episodes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Although electrical neurostimulation has been proposed as an alternative treatment for drug-resistant cases of epilepsy, current procedures such as deep brain stimulation, vagus, and trigeminal nerve stimulation are effective only in a fraction of the patients. Here we demonstrate a closed loop brain-machine interface that delivers electrical stimulation to the dorsal column (DCS) of the spinal cord to suppress epileptic seizures. Rats were implanted with cortical recording microelectrodes and spinal cord stimulating electrodes, and then injected with pentylenetetrazole to induce seizures. Seizures were detected in real time from cortical local field potentials, after which DCS was applied. This method decreased seizure episode frequency by 44% and seizure duration by 38%. We argue that the therapeutic effect of DCS is related to modulation of cortical theta waves, and propose that this closed-loop interface has the potential to become an effective and semi-invasive treatment for refractory epilepsy and other neurological disorders.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus